Pharmacoresistance in Epilepsy. Proceedings of the 2nd Halifax International Epilepsy Conference & Retreat. September 21–22, 2012. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Pharmacoresistance in epilepsy. Proceedings of the 2nd Halifax International Epilepsy Conference & Retreat. September 21–22, 2012. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Epilepsia. 2013 May; 54 Suppl 2: 1-85

HubMed – drug

Effects of ziprasidone and olanzapine on body composition and metabolic parameters: an open-label comparative pilot study.

Behav Brain Funct. 2013 Jul 19; 9(1): 27
Park S, Yi KK, Kim MS, Hong JP

In contrast to olanzapine, ziprasidone has been reported to cause minimal or no weight gain. This study aimed to compare the effects of ziprasidone and olanzapine on weight, body composition, appetite, resting energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and metabolic parameters in adults with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders.Twenty adults with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders were randomized 1:1 to ziprasidone 20–160 mg/day or olanzapine 5–20 mg/day for 12 weeks. The mean doses during the 12-week study period were 109(range: 65–140) mg/day for ziprasidone and 11.6(range: 8.2–15.5) mg/day for olanzapine. Body weight, appetite, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and metabolic parameters were measured before and after drug treatment. Outcome measurements before and after medication were compared, and ziprasidone- and olanzapine-treated patients were compared.After 12 weeks, olanzapine-treated patients showed significant weight gain, particularly fat gain, with increased low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, ziprasidone-treated patients showed no significant weight gain with increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration.Ziprasidone was associated with a lower propensity for weight gain and central fat deposition than olanzapine. Studies in larger patient samples are required to confirm these results. HubMed – drug

A clinical and molecular study of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in three districts of central and eastern India.

Malar J. 2013 Jul 17; 12(1): 247
Srivastava P, Ratha J, Shah NK, Mishra N, Anvikar AK, Sharma SK, Das MK, Srivastava B, Valecha N

Artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is recommended throughout India as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Due to the presence of several eco-epidemiological zones of malaria and variable drug pressure, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in different regions of India. The objective of this study was to use clinical and molecular methods to monitor the efficacy of AS + SP in three diverse sites.The study was undertaken in three high endemic sites of central and eastern India. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and followed for 28 days. Molecular genotyping was conducted for merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) to differentiate between re-infection and recrudescence and for the dhfr and dhps genes to monitor antifolate drug resistance.In all, 149 patients were enrolled at the three sites. The crude cure rates were 95.9%, 100%, and 100% in Ranchi, Keonjhar, and West Garo Hills respectively. PCR-corrected cure rates were 100% at all sites. In dhfr, 27% of isolates had triple mutations, while 46% isolates were double-mutants. The most prevalent mutation was S108N followed by C59R. 164 L mutation was observed in 43/126 (34%) isolates. In dhps, most (76%) of the isolates were wild-type. Only 2.5% (2/80) isolates showed double mutation. dhfr-dhps two locus mutation were observed in 16% (13/80) isolates. Parasite clearance time was not related with antifolate mutations.AS + SP combination therapy remained effective against falciparum malaria despite common mutations promoting resistance to antifolate drugs. Although the prevalence of double and triple mutations in dhfr was high, the prevalence of dhfr-dhps two locus mutations were low. Even isolates with dhfr triple and dhfr-dhps two locus mutations achieved adequate clinical and parasitological response. HubMed – drug

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