Norepinephrine Enhances a Discrete Form of Long-Term Depression During Fear Memory Storage.

Norepinephrine Enhances a Discrete Form of Long-Term Depression during Fear Memory Storage.

J Neurosci. 2013 Jul 17; 33(29): 11825-32
Clem RL, Huganir RL

Amygdala excitatory synaptic strengthening is thought to contribute to both conditioned fear and anxiety. Thus, one basis for behavioral flexibility could allow these pathways to be weakened and corresponding emotion to be attenuated. However, synaptic depression within the context of amygdala-dependent behavior remains poorly understood. Previous work identified lateral amygdala (LA) calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) as a key target for synaptic removal in long-term depression (LTD) and persistent fear attenuation. Here we demonstrate that LA neurons express two equally potent forms of LTD with contrasting requirements for protein kinase and phosphatase activity and differential impact on CP-AMPAR trafficking. Selective removal of CP-AMPARs from synapses is contingent on group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) and PKC signaling, in contrast to an alternate LTD pathway that nonselectively removes AMPARs and requires calcineurin (PP2b). Intriguingly, the balance between these forms of LTD is shifted by posttraining activation of ?-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioned mice, resulting in selective augmentation of mGluR-dependent depression. These results highlight the complexity of core mechanisms in LTD and suggest that norepinephrine exposure mediates a form of synaptic metaplasticity that recalibrates fear memory processing. HubMed – depression

Androgenesis is a maternal trait in the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata.

Proc Biol Sci. 2013; 280(1766): 20131181
Rey O, Facon B, Foucaud J, Loiseau A, Estoup A

Androgenesis is the production of an offspring containing exclusively the nuclear genome of the fathering male via the maternal eggs. This unusual mating system is generally considered a male trait, giving to androgenetic males a substantial fitness advantage over their sexually reproducing relatives. We here provide the first empirical study of the evolutionary outcomes of androgenesis in a haplo-diploid organism: the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata. Some of the populations of this species have a classical haplo-diploid sexual mating system. In other populations, females and males are produced through parthenogenesis and androgenesis, respectively, whereas workers are produced sexually. We conducted laboratory reciprocal-cross experiments with reproductive individuals from both types of populations and analysed their progenies with genetic markers, to determine the respective contribution of males and females to the production of androgenetic males. We found that androgenesis was a parthenogenetic female trait. A population genetic study conducted in natura confirmed the parthenogenetic female origin of androgenesis, with the identification of introgression events of sexual male genotypes into androgenetic/parthenogenetic lineages. We argue that by producing males via androgenesis, parthenogenetic queen lineages may increase and/or maintain their adaptive potential, while maintaining the integrity of their own genome, by occasionally acquiring new male genetic material and avoiding inbreeding depression within the sexually produced worker cast. HubMed – depression

Disturbed Sleep and Inflammatory Cytokines in Depressed and Nondepressed Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes.

Psychosom Med. 2013 Jul 17;
Okun ML, Luther JF, Wisniewski SR, Wisner KL

ObjectiveDisturbed sleep and depression are potential risk factors for pregnancy complications. Both conditions are known to dysregulate biological pathways responsible for maintaining homeostatic balance and pregnancy health. Depression during pregnancy is associated with poor sleep. Thus, we explored whether disturbed sleep was associated with inflammatory cytokines and risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, as well as whether depression augmented the sleep-cytokine relationship, thereby additively contributing to risk for adverse outcomes.MethodsInterview-assessed sleep and plasma cytokine concentrations were evaluated in a cohort of depressed and nondepressed pregnant women (n = 168) at 20 and 30 weeks’ gestation. Outcomes evaluated included preterm birth, birth weight, and peripartum events.ResultsAmong depressed women, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with higher interleukin (IL)-8 across time (? = 0.506, p = .001), poor sleep efficiency (<85%) was associated with higher IL-6 (? = 0.205, p = .006), and daytime naps were associated with higher tumor necrosis factor ? (? = 0.105, p = .024). Aspects of poor sleep were associated with having a lower weight baby (p values <.053). Among depressed women, interferon-? increased risk for preterm birth (odds ratio = 1.175, p = .032). Trends for IL-6 and higher birth weight (? = 105.2, p = .085), interferon-? and lower birth weight (? = -19.92, p < .069), and increased IL-8 and babies weighing less than 4000 grams (odds ratio = 0.72, p < .083) were observed.ConclusionsAlthough speculative, disturbed sleep may disrupt normal immune processes and contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exploratory analyses indicate that depression modifies these relationships. HubMed – depression

[Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Associated Symptoms and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnosis and Pharmacological Treatment.]

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2013 Jul 17;
Paslakis G, Schredl M, Alm B, Sobanski E

Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. HubMed – depression