Obesity Alters the Gustatory Perception of Lipids in the Mouse: Plausible Involvement of the Lingual CD36.

Obesity alters the gustatory perception of lipids in the mouse: plausible involvement of the lingual CD36.

J Lipid Res. 2013 Jul 9;
Chevrot M, Bernard A, Ancel D, Buttet M, Martin C, Abdoul-Azize S, Merlin JF, Poirier H, Niot I, Khan NA, Passilly-Degrace P, Besnard P

A relationship between oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids, regulation of fat intake and body mass index was recently suggested. However, involved mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, whether obesity can directly modulate preference for fatty foods remains unknown. To address this question, exploration of the oral lipid sensing system was undertaken in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. By using a combination of biochemical, physiological and behavioral approaches, we found that i) the attraction for lipids is decreased in obese mice, ii) this behavioral change has an oro-sensory origin, iii) it is reversed in calorie-restricted DIO mice, revealing an inverse correlation between fat preference and adipose tissue size, iv) obesity suppresses the lipid-mediated down-regulation of the lipid-sensor CD36 in circumvallate papillae, usually found during the refeeding of lean mice and v) the CD36-dependent signaling cascade controlling the intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in taste bud cells is decreased in obese mice. Therefore, obesity alters the lipid sensing system responsible for the oral perception of dietary lipids via a CD36-mediated mechanism, leading to changes in the eating behavior. HubMed – eating


Methylphenidate decreases fat and carbohydrate intake in obese teenagers.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jul 9;
Danilovich N, Mastrandrea L, Cataldi L, Quattrin T

Objective: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that mediates the reward value of food. Methylphenidate (MPH) selectively binds and inhibits the dopamine transporter, thus increasing brain dopamine levels shortly after oral administration. This investigation studied whether a single dose of MPH decreases energy intake (EI) in obese teenagers compared to placebo (P). Design and Methods: This study used a single-blind, placebo-controlled, within subject design. Teenagers with Body Mass Index (BMI) >95(th) percentile underwent two identical meal tests (P or MPH) after a 10 hour fast in random order. Food was weighed before and after the meals, and EI was calculated as energy content/gram of consumed foods. Total and macronutrient EI (mean±SD) were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. Results: 22 subjects (15 females, 7 males) completed the study. Participants were 13.4±2.2 years old and had BMI 34.9±10.7 kg/m². EI from fat (167 vs. 203 kcal, p=0.03) and carbohydrates (311 vs. 389 kcal, p=.04) was decreased for MPH compared to P meals, with a trend in decreased total EI (545 vs. 663 kcal, p=0.06). Conclusions: A single dose of MPH decreases EI from fat and carbohydrates in obese adolescents. This effect underscores the importance of central dopamine signaling on eating behavior. HubMed – eating


The effect of an intervention on schoolchildren’s susceptibility to a peer’s candy intake.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 10;
Bevelander KE, Engels RC, Anschütz DJ, Wansink B

Background/objectives:The aim of the study was to pilot test two interventions designed to reduce children’s susceptibility to peers’ candy intake and to determine if interventions had different effects on boys and girls.Subjects/methods:In the standard intervention, peer modeling was explained while communicating the importance of not following other’s food intake by means of photos, video clips and interactive tasks. A second animated intervention was similar but added a monkey puppet as a (cue) reminder. A social modeling component was conducted 1 day after the intervention to test whether the interventions affected the extent to which children model their peers’ eating. During the modeling session, the participants’ (N=141; 78% boys, mean age=7.84±0.72 years) solved a puzzle with a same-sex ‘confederate’ who was instructed to eat chocolate candy when he/she was covertly signaled. The monkey puppet was put in sight to test whether the monkey served as a cue reminder in the animated intervention. Candy intake was compared across control and intervention conditions.Results:The standard intervention reduced candy intake in boys but not girls. Nevertheless, children still remained susceptible to a peer’s eating. There was no significant effect of the animated intervention on consumption.Conclusions:There are gender differences when children are exposed to an (over)eating peer. Although interventions are effective, social norms can be powerful. Social networks should be leveraged when possible. The study is registered at the Dutch Trial Register: NTR3459.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 10 July 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.122. HubMed – eating