Autophagy in Breast Cancer and Its Implications for Therapy.

Autophagy in breast cancer and its implications for therapy.

Am J Cancer Res. 2013; 3(3): 251-65
Jain K, Paranandi KS, Sridharan S, Basu A

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process of cellular self-digestion that serves as a mechanism to clear damaged organelles and recycle nutrients. Since autophagy can promote cell survival as well as cell death, it has been linked to different human pathologies, including cancer. Although mono-allelic deletion of autophagy-related gene BECN1 in breast tumors originally indicated a tumor suppressive role for autophagy in breast cancer, the intense research during the last decade suggests a role for autophagy in tumor progression. It is now recognized that tumor cells often utilize autophagy to survive various stresses, such as oncogene-induced transformation, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and extracellular matrix detachment. Induction of autophagy by tumor cells may also contribute to tumor dormancy and resistance to anticancer therapies, thus making autophagy inhibitors promising drug candidates for breast cancer treatment. The scientific endeavors continue to define a precise role for autophagy in breast cancer. In this article, we review the current literature on the role of autophagy during the development and progression of breast cancer, and discuss the potential of autophagy modulators for breast cancer treatment. HubMed – drug


A Study on Course of Infection and Haematological Changes in falciparum-Infected in Comparison with Artemisinin(s)-Treated Mice.

Malar Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 426040
Kuthala KK, Meka S, Kanikaram S

To find out the efficacy and effect of artemisinin derivatives on haematological indices, C57BL/6J mice were challenged with Plasmodium falciparum and treated with therapeutic doses of AS, AE, and AL. Course of infection was studied in the infected and treated groups up to day 42. Peak level of parasitaemia (38%) was observed on day 11 in infected group. Haematological indices indicated significant (P < 0.05) decrease in RBC, WBC, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell volume, and platelet counts in infected mice. But all the parameters were restored to normal values, and significant (P < 0.05) changes were observed in all drug-treated groups. Insignificant changes were observed for MCHC (P > 0.05) in all drug-treated groups. Percent of peak parasitaemia was much reduced in AL- (3.2% on day 3) treated group in comparison with AE- (2.4% on day 4) and AS- (4% on day 2) treated groups. Parasites were completely cleared on day 6 in AS group, day 5 in AE group, and day 4 in AL group. Hence, our results strongly support that combination therapy has high efficacy rates than monotherapy. No adverse effects were observed on haematological parameters when animals were treated with therapeutic dosages. HubMed – drug


An Acute Ibuprofen Overdose Masking a Severe Staphylococcus aureus Meningitis: A Case Report.

Case Rep Emerg Med. 2013; 2013: 603251
Smetana M, Picard K, Boehm KM

Acute bacterial meningitis has a low incidence (3/100,000 in the United States) and yet high fatality rate (approximately 14-16%) and classically presents as a triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status. However, less than half of patients with meningitis present with this classic triad. We present the clinical course of a patient who initially presented to the emergency department after overdosing on ibuprofen for what he described as back pain secondary to mechanical injury. However, the patient’s condition quickly deteriorated: he developed tachycardia, mental status changes, was intubated due to respiratory distress, and then suffered an 8-minute PEA arrest before return of spontaneous circulation was achieved. After the patient was stabilized, in addition to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) overdose Staphylococcus aureus meningitis, bacteremia, and pneumonia were diagnosed. We report this case to illustrate that the initial presentation of meningitis may be extremely unusual especially in the setting of NSAID overdose and the acutely decompensating patient. As the risk of adverse clinical outcomes increases with delays in appropriate antibiotic therapy, it is therefore crucial to recognize the many signs and symptoms of meningitis, typical and atypical, and quickly begin appropriate treatment. HubMed – drug


Deregulations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-9-related pathway in cancer: implications for drug discovery and development.

ISRN Oncol. 2013; 2013: 305371
Romano G

The CDK9-related pathway is an important regulator of mammalian cell biology and is also involved in the replication cycle of several viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. CDK9 is present in two isoforms termed CDK9-42 and CDK9-55 that bind noncovalently type T cyclins and cyclin K. This association forms a heterodimer, where CDK9 carries the enzymatic site and the cyclin partner functions as a regulatory subunit. This heterodimer is the main component of the positive transcription elongation factor b, which stabilizes RNA elongation via phosphorylation of the RNA pol II carboxyl terminal domain. Abnormal activities in the CDK9-related pathway were observed in human malignancies and cardiac hypertrophies. Thus, the elucidation of the CDK9 pathway deregulations may provide useful insights into the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies, cardiac hypertrophy, AIDS and other viral-related maladies. These studies may lead to the improvement of kinase inhibitors for the treatment of the previously mentioned pathological conditions. This review describes the CDK9-related pathway deregulations in malignancies and the development of kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy, which can be classified into three categories: antagonists that block the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain, allosteric inhibitors, and small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions. HubMed – drug