Neurogenetics and Nutrigenomics of Neuro-Nutrient Therapy for Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Clinical Ramifications as a Function of Molecular Neurobiological Mechanisms.

Neurogenetics and Nutrigenomics of Neuro-Nutrient Therapy for Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Clinical Ramifications as a Function of Molecular Neurobiological Mechanisms.

J Addict Res Ther. 2012 Nov 27; 3(5): 139
Blum K, Oscar-Berman M, Stuller E, Miller D, Giordano J, Morse S, McCormick L, Downs WB, Waite RL, Barh D, Neal D, Braverman ER, Lohmann R, Borsten J, Hauser M, Han D, Liu Y, Helman M, Simpatico T

In accord with the new definition of addiction published by American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) it is well-known that individuals who present to a treatment center involved in chemical dependency or other documented reward dependence behaviors have impaired brain reward circuitry. They have hypodopaminergic function due to genetic and/or environmental negative pressures upon the reward neuro-circuitry. This impairment leads to aberrant craving behavior and other behaviors such as Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Neurogenetic research in both animal and humans revealed that there is a well-defined cascade in the reward site of the brain that leads to normal dopamine release. This cascade has been termed the “Brain Reward Cascade” (BRC). Any impairment due to either genetics or environmental influences on this cascade will result in a reduced amount of dopamine release in the brain reward site. Manipulation of the BRC has been successfully achieved with neuro-nutrient therapy utilizing nutrigenomic principles. After over four decades of development, neuro-nutrient therapy has provided important clinical benefits when appropriately utilized. This is a review, with some illustrative case histories from a number of addiction professionals, of certain molecular neurobiological mechanisms which if ignored may lead to clinical complications. HubMed – addiction

Meperidine: a continuing problem.

Subst Abuse. 2013; 7: 127-9
Clubb B, Loveday W, Ballantyne S

Letter to the Editor regarding meperidine prescriptions in Queensland, Australia, 1999 to 2010. HubMed – addiction

KIBRA Polymorphism Is Associated with Individual Differences in Hippocampal Subregions: Evidence from Anatomical Segmentation using High-Resolution MRI.

J Neurosci. 2013 Aug 7; 33(32): 13088-13093
Palombo DJ, Amaral RS, Olsen RK, Müller DJ, Todd RM, Anderson AK, Levine B

The KIBRA gene has been associated with episodic memory in several recent reports; carriers of the T-allele show enhanced episodic memory performance relative to noncarriers. Gene expression studies in human and rodent species show high levels of KIBRA in the hippocampus, particularly in the subfields. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the KIBRA C?T polymorphism is also associated with volume differences in the human hippocampus and whether specific subfields are differentially affected by KIBRA genotype. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted, voxel size = 0.4 × 0.4 mm, in-plane) was used to manually segment hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) subfields, dentate gyrus (DG), and the subiculum as well as adjacent medial temporal lobe cortices in healthy carriers and noncarriers of the KIBRA T-allele (rs17070145). Overall, we found that T-carriers had a larger hippocampal volume relative to noncarriers. The structural differences observed were specific to the CA fields and DG regions of the hippocampus, suggesting a potential neural mechanism for the effects of KIBRA on episodic memory performance reported previously. HubMed – addiction

Pathways into the criminal justice system for individuals with intellectual disability.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2013 Sep; 26(5): 404-9
Raina P, Arenovich T, Jones J, Lunsky Y

Studies focusing on pathways in the criminal justice system for individuals with intellectual disability are limited in that they only study individuals once they are involved in the system and do not consider the pathways into it. The purpose of this study is to examine predisposing factors that lead to various outcomes for individuals with intellectual disability when police are called to respond to their behavioural crises.The current study examined the outcome of police response to 138 individuals with intellectual disability in crisis. Following police intervention, 15 individuals were arrested, 76 were taken to the emergency department and 47 received on-scene resolution. Comparisons between the three groups were conducted.The three groups differed in terms of residence at the time of crisis, history of forensic involvement and type of crisis. Police intervention with adults with intellectual disability can happen for different reasons. Both individual and situational predictors explained this outcome. HubMed – addiction

Ed Diehl, President Seabrook House Addiction Rehab www SeabrookHouse org
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