Effects of Varicocelectomy on Anti-Sperm Antibody in Patients With Varicocele.

Effects of Varicocelectomy on Anti-sperm Antibody in Patients with Varicocele.

J Reprod Infertil. 2013 Apr; 14(2): 73-8
Bonyadi MR, Madaen SK, Saghafi M

Anti-sperm antibody (ASA) can decrease sperm motility and, therefore, it is a cause of male infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of varicocelectomy on anti-sperm antibody in patients with varicocele.This observational study was conducted on 90 patients with varicocele at Sina and Imam Khomeini hospitals during 2006 to 2009. All varicocelectomy candidates were selected for ASA assessment both in semen and serum before and after surgery. ASA level was measured using a direct method for semen and an indirect method of Sperm MAR test, for serum. Paired t-test and McNemar’s test were used for data analysis, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.ASA level in semen was 13.7% before, and 15.7% after three month of varicocelectomy (p=0.881). Serum level of ASA before and after surgery were 13.6% and 21.7%, respectively (p=0.033). Three parameters including sperm count, motility and morphology showed recovery following, varicocelectomy, but only the difference in sperm motility was significant (p<0.05).This study showed that varicocelectomy has no effect on semen ASA. Although serum antibody has been shown to increase after varicocelectomy but sperm motility will improve. Varicocelectomy seems to have a beneficial effect on semen parameters in infertile men with varicocele. HubMed – drug

Adolescent males and young females in tehran: differing perspectives, behaviors and needs for reproductive health and implications for gender sensitive interventions.

J Reprod Infertil. 2012 Apr; 13(2): 101-10
Farahani FK, Shah I, Cleland J, Mohammadi MR

Despite cultural and religious prohibitions against premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy, some recent evidence suggests some rise in premarital heterosexual interactions and relationships among young people. On the other hand, although HIV in Iran is a concentrated epidemic and mainly reported among high risk groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs), but there are evidences that the mode of transmission is shifting towards sexual contacts. This trend has caused concern among health policy makers in terms of prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS particularly, among young people. This paper was prepared with the aim of highlighting how gender contributes to variation in reproductive health needs and conduct of young people in Iran.This paper is based on a secondary analysis and compares comparable reproductive beliefs and conducts of women and men based on the data of two surveys conducted in Tehran in 2002 and 2005. A survey among 1385 adolescent males and another survey among 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran. Both surveys used anonymous self-administered questionnaires. To make the two samples comparable, the data of unmarried female university undergraduate students who resided in Tehran were merged with the data of adolescent male students who intended to pursue higher education. Common variables of the two surveys were identified, homogenized, merged and analysed.Reproductive health knowledge among male adolescents was poor compared to that of their female peers. Although premarital friendships were moderately acceptable from view points of both males and females, the majority were against premarital sex, particularly among female participants. There were evidences of gender-based double standards in perceptions of premarital sexuality among both males and females; particularly, it was stronger among males than females. Male adolescents reported earlier and greater experiences of premarital heterosexual intimacy and sexual contact than females. Multiple partners were also more common among males than females. Females had a tendency to regret first sexual contact more than males, which reflects that first sex is more likely to be unplanned and unwanted among females compared to males.Significant gender-based double standards prevailed current sexual attitudes and conduct of young people in Iran. Gender norms which encourage unmarried men to practice premarital sex lead to an earlier transition of men to sexual relations and multiple sexual partners. Due to poor knowledge and various misconceptions about sexual health and lack of consistent contraceptive and condom use among adolescents and young people in Iran, both young men and women are susceptible to sexual and reproductive health hazards such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV/AIDS, pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Changing gender norms associated with sexuality may lead to promotion of safer sexual behaviors particularly among young people. Current reproductive health and HIV prevention programs should take into account gender-based double standards among young people and their unmet reproductive health needs. HubMed – drug

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS: Do Iranian Pregnant Mothers Know about it?

J Reprod Infertil. 2010 Apr; 11(1): 53-7
Majid T, Farhad Y, Sorour A, Soheila A, Farnaz F, Hojjat Z, Leili CT

Nowadays, HIV is mostly spreading in Asian countries. One of the important routes for HIV transmission in these countries is the vertical route which infects 35% to 45% of newborns. Mother’s education, drug prophylaxis and Cesarean section, accompanied by banning breastfeeding will decrease this rate to 2%. Therefore, mothers’ knowledge about Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) has a great role in HIV/AIDS prevention. This study was designed to evaluate knowledge of pregnant women about HIV, its vertical transmission and prevention in Tehran, Iran.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1577 pregnant women aged 15 – 46 years who were attending prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran. The research material was a questionnaire which was completed daily by trained midwives. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, independent sample t-test, Pearson correlation and linear regression with a significance level of p = 0.05.About 16.5% of the participants had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS and 54.1% about its transmission routes but awareness about its prevention was only 5.7%. Fifty-seven percent of the participant had not been tested for HIV earlier and 20.2% were not willing to undergo such tests. About 86.2% of the participants had no idea about the availability of drug prophylaxis in Iran for PMTCT.The fact that 28.2% of the participants were not willing to undergo HIV testing reflects negative attitude about HIV infection. Although the overall awareness about the infection and its transmission was good but knowledge about its prevention especially by PMTCT and its availability in Iran was low. Educational programs through mass media or prenatal care programs by focusing on HIV/AIDS prevention maybe useful. HubMed – drug

Second generation drug-eluting stents: a review of the everolimus-eluting platform.

Clin Med Insights Cardiol. 2013; 7: 115-26
Whitbeck MG, Applegate RJ

Everolimus-eluting stents (EES) represent the next generation of drug-eluting stents (DES). Important design modifications include thin strut stent backbones, less inflammatory and more biocompatible polymers, and lower drug dosing. The cobalt chromium EES fluoropolymer XIENCE V stent has been the most extensively studied of such stents. In animal models, this stent demonstrated minimal vessel inflammation, a biologically active endothelium with strut coverage similar to a bare metal stent, and inhibition of intimal hyperplasia comparable to that seen with sirolimus-eluting stents. The SPIRIT family of clinical trials demonstrated low rates of late loss, and clinical restenosis, as well as low rates of very late stent thrombosis. These excellent clinical outcomes addressed limitations of the 1st generation DES, and substantiated widespread clinical use of the EES platform. HubMed – drug

Cordycepin enhances cisplatin apoptotic effect through caspase/MAPK pathways in human head and neck tumor cells.

Onco Targets Ther. 2013; 6: 983-98
Chen YH, Wang JY, Pan BS, Mu YF, Lai MS, So EC, Wong TS, Huang BM

The present study aims to investigate whether the combination treatment of cordycepin (an extracted pure compound from Cordyceps sinensis) and cisplatin (a platinum-based chemotherapy drug) has better apoptotic effect in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).The apoptotic influences of cordycepin and/or cisplatin treatments to human OC3, OEC-M1, and FaDu HNSCC cells were investigated by morphological observations, viability assay, flow cytometry assay, and Western blotting methods.Data showed that the cell death phenomenon increased as the dosage of cordycepin or cisplatin increased, and it appeared more in cordycepin plus cisplatin cotreatment among three cell lines. Cell survival rates significantly decreased as the dosage of cordycepin or cisplatin increased, and the better apoptotic effects were observed in cotreatment. Cell cycle analysis further demonstrated that percentages of subG1 cells in cordycepin or cisplatin treatments significantly increased, suggesting that cells underwent apoptosis, and cordycepin plus cisplatin induced many more subG1 cells. Furthermore, cordycepin or cisplatin induced caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase protein cleavages, and stimulated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 protein phosphorylations. Moreover, cordycepin plus cisplatin cotreatment significantly activated those proteins with much better effects among three cell lines.Cordycepin plus cisplatin have better apoptotic effect by activating caspase activation with possible MAPK pathway involvement in HNSCC cells. HubMed – drug