Nasal Tip Support: A Finite Element Analysis of the Role of the Caudal Septum During Tip Depression.

Nasal tip support: A finite element analysis of the role of the caudal septum during tip depression.

Laryngoscope. 2013 Jul 23;
Manuel CT, Leary R, Protsenko DE, Wong BJ

Although minor and major tip support mechanisms have been described in detail, no quantitative models exist to provide support for the relative contributions of the structural properties of the major alar cartilage, the fibrous attachments to surrounding structures, and the rigid support structures in an objective manner.The finite element method was used to compute the stress distribution in the nose during simple tip compression, and then identify the specific anatomic structures that resist deformation and thus contribute to tip support. Additionally, the impact of caudal septal resection on nasal tip support was examined.The computer models consisted of three tissue components with anatomically correct geometries for skin and bone derived from computed tomographic data. Septum, upper lateral cartilages, and major alar cartilages were fitted within the model using three-dimensional computer-aided design software. Five-millimeter nasal tip compression was performed on the models with caudal septal resection (3 and 5 mm) and without resection to simulate palpation, then the resulting spatial distribution of stress and displacement was calculated.The von Mises stress in the normal model was primarily concentrated along the medial crural angle. As caudal septum length was reduced, stress was redistributed to adjacent soft tissue and bone, resulting in less force acting on the septum. In all models, displacement was greatest near the intermediate crura.These models are the first step in the comprehensive mechanical analysis of nasal tip dynamics. Our model supports the concept of the caudal septum and major alar cartilage providing the majority of critical load-bearing support.N/A Laryngoscope, 2013. HubMed – depression

Vascular risk factors, depression, and cognitive change among African American older adults.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 23;
Carmasin JS, Mast BT, Allaire JC, Whitfield KE

Vascular burden has been linked to future depression and cognitive change in predominately European American samples. This study investigated these relationships in older African Americans.To examine the connection between vascular risk factors, depression, and cognitive change, this study utilized data from 435 older African Americans. Specifically, the study examined the link between vascular risk at baseline with depression and cognitive functioning at a 2.5-year follow-up visit.High baseline vascular risk was associated with increased odds of future depression while controlling for age and current depression. A series of path analyses demonstrated links between baseline vascular risk, increases in depression, and decreases in processing speed.These findings suggest that African Americans with greater vascular burden are at greater risk for depression and cognitive change. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HubMed – depression

Performance on the Green Word Memory Test Following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-Era Military Service: Test Failure is Related to Evaluation Context.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2013 Jul 21;
McCormick CL, Yoash-Gantz RE, McDonald SD, Campbell TC, Tupler LA

This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA. HubMed – depression

Different Types Of Major Depression Treatment
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