Microbial Aetiologic Agents Associated With Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Hosts.

Microbial aetiologic agents associated with pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts.

Afr J Infect Dis. 2010; 4(1): 1-6
Udeani TK, Moses J, Uzoechina A, Okwori AE, Okwosa CN

Pulmonary infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunosuppressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents and predisposing factors associated with pneumonia infections in immunocompromised patients. Cross-sectional survey of 100 immunocompromised patients due to HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections were enlisted for the study. The patients completed a structured questionnaire to abstract information on demographic features and risk factors. Sputum samples were collected from the patients with clinical suspicion of having pneumonia and the sputa examined by cultural methods. The tuberculosis patients had the highest number of isolates, 119 (70%) while those with co-infections of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis had 41(24.1%) and those with only HIV infection were 10 (5.9%). The distribution of isolates were as follows, Staphylococcus aureus 63 (37.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes 44 (25.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae 27 (15.9%), Candida albicans 24 (14.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 7 (4.1%), Proteus mirabilis 4 (2.4%) and Escherichia coli 1 (0.5%). Those with previous history of alcoholism and tobacco smoking had relatively high isolates. This study demonstrated that secondary infections are prevalent in the immunocompromised patients due to HIV/AIDS and TB or co-infection with TB/HIV-AIDS. This may lead to drug resistance, DOTS or HAART programme, thereby leading to high mortality and morbidity. HubMed – drug

Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated From Expressed Prostatic Secretions of Patients With Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis.

Korean J Urol. 2013 Jul; 54(7): 477-81
Seo Y, Lee G

Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common pathogens linked to chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Owing to a limited number of previous studies addressing this topic, we aimed to determine the drug resistance patterns of E. faecalis strains isolated from CBP patients.One thousand twenty-one patients visited a single hospital owing to chronic prostatitis for 5 years. Culture specimens were obtained by use of a modified Meares-Stamey method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the antimicrobials were assessed by use of the Vitek II microbial identification system as suggested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Forty-one samples from 41 patients who had significant E. faecalis loads for defining CBP were included in this study. The E. faecalis strains in our study were resistant to penicillin (9.7%), ampicillin (0%), ampicillin/sulbactam (0%), nitrofurantoin (0%), imipenem (0%), vancomycin (0%), teicoplanin (0%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (100%), ciprofloxacin (9.7%), levofloxacin (4.8%), norfloxacin (26.8%), erythromycin (95%), gentamicin (46.3%), tetracycline (97.5%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (31.5%), respectively.Fluoroquinolones have been the preferred antibiotics for treating CBP. Because of their low rate of drug resistance, fluoroquinolones are suitable therapeutic agents for E. faecalis strains causing CBP in Korea. Even though tetracycline, erythromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole have been prescribed as an empirical antimicrobial therapy for chronic prostatitis, we cannot recommend these drugs for treatment of E. faecalis isolates because of the high rates of drug resistance. HubMed – drug

Prevalence of HIV, HepBsAg and Hep C antibodies among inmates in Chichiri prison, Blantyre, Malawi.

Malawi Med J. 2007 Sep; 19(3): 107-10
Chimphambano C, Komolafe I, Muula A

To determine HIV, HepatitisBsAg and Hepatitis C antibodies including knowledge, attitudes, practices and risk factors that may facilitate the spread of HIV among inmates at Chichiri Prison, Blantyre, Malawi.This was a cross sectional study. Informed consent was sought from each of the participants before interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic data. Blood specimens were collected for HIV and hepatitis B and C serology.Chichiri Prison in Blantyre which is one of the largest prison facilities in Malawi. Adult males and female inmates participated while juveniles were excluded.A total of 164 prison inmates comprising 142 males (86.6%) and 22 females (13.4%) participated in the study. The age range was 18-65 years with mean age at 28.6 years. Overall HIV prevalence rate was 36.6%; among male inmates it was 29.9%, and among the 22 female inmates tested, 11(50%) were reactive. Five males (3.5%) tested positive for HepBsAg with one of them dually infected with HIV. All participants were hepatitis C negative. 141 (86%) inmates acknowledged that they knew that man to man sex occured in the prison, 55(33.5%) believed that mosquito bites could spread HIV; 33(20.1%) said that sex was the only way HIV could be spread, 8(4.9%) thought that HIV/AIDS could be spread through food sharing. 20 (12.2%) believed that HIV couldn’t be spread from mother to child and 135 (82.3%) acknowledged that tattooing was practiced among the inmates. 130(79.3%) acknowledged knowledge of use of cannabis in prison; 3 (2.1%) male inmates actually accepted being homosexuals. None of the inmates reported knowledge of use of injectable drugs within the prison.HIV prevalence rate (36.6 %) at the Chichiri Prison is higher than the national average of 14%, while female infection rates were higher than males. There are gaps in the inmates’ knowledge of the epidemiology of HIV which need to be bridged through awareness programmes. Homosexuality and injecting drug use may not be a major factor in HIV transmission within prisons in Malawi. The low prevalence of Hepatitis BsAg (3.5%) and the inability to detect Hepatitis C antibodies deserve further study. HubMed – drug