Loss of Interneuron LTD and Attenuated Pyramidal Cell LTP in Trpv1 and Trpv3 KO Mice.

Loss of interneuron LTD and attenuated pyramidal cell LTP in Trpv1 and Trpv3 KO mice.

Hippocampus. 2013 Mar 28;
Brown TE, Chirila AM, Schrank BR, Kauer JA

TRPV (transient receptor potential, vanilloid) channels are a family of nonselective cation channels that are activated by a wide variety of chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV1 channels are highly expressed in sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. However, a number of studies have also reported TRPV channels in the brain, though their functions are less well understood. In the hippocampus, the TRPV1 channel is a novel mediator of long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory synapses on interneurons. Here we tested the role of other TRPV channels in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, using hippocampal slices from Trpv1, Trpv3 and Trpv4 knockout (KO) mice. LTD at excitatory synapses on s. radiatum hippocampal interneurons was attenuated in slices from Trpv3 KO mice (as well as in Trpv1 KO mice as previously reported), but not in slices from Trpv4 KO mice. A previous study found that in hippocampal area CA1, slices from Trpv1 KO mice have reduced tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) following high-frequency stimulation; here we confirmed this and found a similar reduction in Trpv3 KO mice. We hypothesized that the loss of LTD at the excitatory synapses on local inhibitory interneurons caused the attenuated LTP in the mutants. Consistent with this idea, blocking GABAergic inhibition rescued LTP in slices from Trpv1 KO and Trpv3 KO mice. Our findings suggest a novel role for TRPV3 channels in synaptic plasticity and provide a possible mechanism by which TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels modulate hippocampal output. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – depression


Everyday Physical Activity in Ambulatory Heart Transplant Candidates: the Role of Expected Health Benefits, Social Support, and Potential Barriers.

Int J Behav Med. 2013 Mar 28;
Gerhardt A, Weidner G, Grassmann M, Spaderna H

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for stable patients with advanced heart failure (HF). PURPOSE: We evaluated expected health benefits of PA and social support as facilitators of PA, and physical symptom distress and psychological distress (depression, anxiety) as barriers to PA. Additionally, we investigated if facilitators of PA are of particular importance for patients who report barriers. METHOD: We analyzed data assessed at time of waitlisting in 231 ambulatory patients (53.4?±?10.3 years, 18 % women) who were enrolled in the multisite Waiting for a New Heart Study in 1 Austrian and 16 German hospitals. Self-reported everyday PA scores (number of activities, duration of activities) was regressed on demographic characteristics and indicators of disease severity (ejection fraction, peak oxygen consumption), facilitators (expected health benefits of PA, perceived emotional support, perceived support for PA), and barriers to PA (physical symptom distress, psychological distress). Interaction terms of facilitators with barriers were also examined. RESULTS: PA was positively associated with higher peak oxygen consumption, validating self-reported PA. Regarding facilitators, expected health benefits of PA were independently associated with higher PA (p values?HubMed – depression


Depressive Symptoms in Bereaved Parents in the 2008 Wenchuan, China Earthquake: A Cohort Study.

J Trauma Stress. 2013 Mar 27;
Liu W, Fan F, Liu J

This study sought to expand the literature on bereavement and response to natural disasters by reporting the prevalence, severity, and correlates of depressive symptoms among bereaved and nonbereaved parents of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China. Bereaved (n = 155) and nonbereaved (n = 35) parents from the Xiang’e township in China were interviewed at 18 months (Wave 1) and 24 months (Wave 2) following the earthquake. From Wave 1 to Wave 2, rates of probable depression fell for both bereaved (65.8% to 44.5%) and nonbereaved parents (34.3% to 20.0%). The depression index of both groups also decreased, but only significantly among bereaved parents. Of bereaved parents, those with fewer years of education had more severe symptoms at both waves. Depressive symptom severity of bereaved mothers improved over time, but that of bereaved fathers remained unchanged. Not becoming pregnant again after the earthquake was significantly linked to worse depressive symptoms in both waves, but this was not significant when age was added to the model. Bereaved parents may need more postearthquake supportive services, with fathers, individuals with fewer years of education, and parents who are not able to become pregnant again after the earthquake being particularly vulnerable. HubMed – depression


Effects of Varenicline and Bupropion Sustained-Release Use Plus Intensive Smoking Cessation Counseling on Prolonged Abstinence From Smoking and on Depression, Negative Affect, and Other Symptoms of Nicotine Withdrawal.

JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Mar 27; 1-12
Cinciripini PM, Robinson JD, Karam-Hage M, Minnix JA, Lam C, Versace F, Brown VL, Engelmann JM, Wetter DW

IMPORTANCE Given the actions of varenicline tartrate and bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release (SR) on neurobiological targets related to affect and reward, it is thought that the modulation of nicotine withdrawal symptoms may contribute to their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE To assess the relative efficacy of varenicline and bupropion SR plus intensive counseling on smoking cessation and emotional functioning. DESIGN AND SETTING Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial at a university medical center. PARTICIPANTS In total, 294 community volunteers who wanted to quit smoking. INTERVENTIONS Twelve weeks of varenicline, bupropion SR, or placebo plus intensive smoking cessation counseling (10 sessions, for a total of approximately 240 minutes of counseling). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prolonged abstinence from smoking and weekly measures of depression, negative affect, and other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. RESULTS Significant differences were found in abstinence at the end of treatment and through the 3-month postquit follow-up visit, favoring both active medications compared with placebo. At the 6-month postquit follow-up visit, only the varenicline vs placebo comparison remained significant. Varenicline use was also associated with a generalized suppression of depression and reduced smoking reward compared with the other treatments, while both active medications improved concentration, reduced craving, and decreased negative affect and sadness compared with placebo, while having little effect (increase or decrease) on anxiety and anger. No differences were noted in self-reported rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In a community sample, varenicline exerts a robust and favorable effect on smoking cessation relative to placebo and may have a favorable (suppressive) effect on symptoms of depression and other affective measures, with no clear unfavorable effect on neuropsychiatric adverse events. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00507728. HubMed – depression