Investigation of Possible Epistatic Interactions Between GRIA2 and GRIA4 Variants on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

Investigation of possible epistatic interactions between GRIA2 and GRIA4 variants on clinical outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder.

J Int Med Res. 2013 Apr 15;
Chiesa A, Lia L, Lia C, Lee SJ, Han C, Patkar AA, Pae CU, Serretti A

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of glutamate receptor, ionotropic, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) 2 (GRIA2) rs4260586 and glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 4 (GRIA4) rs10736648 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on response to antidepressants in Korean patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and to ascertain whether epistatic interactions might exist between these SNPs. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, patients were assessed at hospital admission and discharge using the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS). A multiple regression model was employed to investigate the effects of the two SNP variants on clinical/sociodemographic outcomes relating to MDD. RESULTS: Out of 145 Korean patients, the presence of both GRIA2 rs4260586 and GRIA4 rs10736648 polymorphisms had no significant association with MADRS improvement scores or other clinical/sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: These data potentially suggest a lack of epistatic interaction between GRIA2 and GRIA4 variants, regarding clinical outcomes in patients with MDD. The study was limited by small sample size, use of different antidepressants and incomplete coverage of genes under investigation. Future research should include larger patient samples treated with different antidepressants, analysis of different SNPs and/or investigation of different gene-gene interactions within the glutamatergic system. HubMed – depression


MiRNA-424 Protects Against Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury in Mice Involving Suppressing Microglia Activation.

Stroke. 2013 Apr 23;
Zhao H, Wang J, Gao L, Wang R, Liu X, Gao Z, Tao Z, Xu C, Song J, Ji X, Luo Y

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We observed that microRNA-424 (miR-424) significantly decreased in an miRNA profile of circulating lymphocytes of patients with ischemic stroke. The present study focused on the potential and mechanism of miR-424 in protecting ischemic brain injury in mice. METHODS: Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in C57/BL6 mice. Cerebral infarction volume, neuronal apoptosis, and microglia activation were determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. BV2 microglial cell activity, cell cycle, mRNA, and protein levels of miR-424 targets were accessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: MiR-424 levels were decreased in the plasma of patients with acute ischemic stroke, as well as in mouse plasma and ipsilateral brain tissue at 4, 8, and 24 hours after ischemia, likewise, in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia, respectively, after 8-hour ischemia. Interestingly, pre- and post-treatment with overexpression of miR-424 both decreased cerebral infarction size and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Meanwhile, lentiviral overexpression of miR-424 inhibited neuronal apoptosis and microglia activation, including suppressing ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 immunoreactivity and protein level, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-? production. In vitro study demonstrated that miR-424 mimics caused G1 phase cell-cycle arrest, inhibited BV2 microglia activity, and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of CDC25A, cyclin D1, and CDK6 in BV2 microglial cells, which were upregulated in brain of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice. CONCLUSIONS: MiR-424 overexpression lessened the ischemic brain injury through suppressing microglia activation by translational depression of key activators of G1/S transition, suggesting a novel miR-based intervention strategy for stroke. HubMed – depression


Exploring Patterns of Unwanted Behaviours in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2013 Apr 24;
Pignatti R, Mori I, Bertella L, Grugni G, Giardino D, Molinari E

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive (O-C) traits, and excessive food intake are well known behavioural manifestations among individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Other unwanted behaviours are also frequently observed, but they need a more specific investigation, especially in the adult population. METHODS: The behaviour of 31 PWS adults was investigated via the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC), and the Prader-Willi Behavioural Checklist (PBC). The PBC is a quick screening questionnaire prompted specifically for the investigation on adults with PWS. RESULTS: Statistical clustering revealed two patterns of unwanted behaviours from the PBC. Behaviours belonging to the first cluster (e.g. Excessive food intake, Skin picking) appear to be linked to the usual phenotypic manifestation of PWS. By contrast, many other behaviours (e.g. some O-C symptoms and aggressive actions) could show a relationship also to individual psychopathologies. CONCLUSIONS: Both internal (Anxiety and Depression) and external (Hostility) difficulties in managing impulses should account for individually distinct behaviours in adults with PWS. HubMed – depression


The antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST is associated with both adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors.

Purinergic Signal. 2013 Apr 25;
Kaster MP, Budni J, Gazal M, Cunha MP, Santos AR, Rodrigues AL

Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside, which is formed during the breakdown of adenosine. The adenosinergic system was already described as capable of modulating mood in preclinical models; we now explored the effects of inosine in two predictive models of depression: the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Mice treated with inosine displayed higher anti-immobility in the FST (5 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route (i.p.)) and in the TST (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) when compared to vehicle-treated groups. These antidepressant-like effects started 30 min and lasted for 2 h after intraperitoneal administration of inosine and were not accompanied by any changes in the ambulatory activity in the open-field test. Both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists prevented the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST. In addition, the administration of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) also caused an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. These results indicate that inosine possesses an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST probably through the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders. HubMed – depression