Impact of Closed-System Drug Transfer Device on Exposure of Environment and Healthcare Provider to Cyclophosphamide in Japanese Hospital.

Impact of closed-system drug transfer device on exposure of environment and healthcare provider to cyclophosphamide in Japanese hospital.

Springerplus. 2013 Dec; 2(1): 273
Miyake T, Iwamoto T, Tanimura M, Okuda M

In spite of current recommended safe handling procedures, the potential for the exposure of healthcare providers to hazardous drugs exists in the workplace. A reliance on biological safety cabinets to provide total protection against the exposure to hazardous drugs is insufficient. Preventing workplace contamination is the best strategy to minimize cytotoxic drug exposure in healthcare providers. This study was conducted to compare surface contamination and personnel exposure to cyclophosphamide before and after the implementation of a closed-system drug transfer device, PhaSeal, under the influence of cleaning according to the Japanese guidelines. Personnel exposure was evaluated by collecting 24 h urine samples from 4 pharmacists. Surface contamination was assessed by the wiping test. Four of 6 wipe samples collected before PhaSeal indicated a detectable level of cyclophosphamide. About 7 months after the initiation of PhaSeal, only one of 6 wipe samples indicated a detectable level of cyclophosphamide. Although all 4 employees who provided urine samples had positive results for the urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide before PhaSeal, these levels returned to minimal levels in 2 pharmacists after PhaSeal. In combination with the biological safety cabinet and cleaning according to the Japanese guidelines, PhaSeal further reduces surface contamination and healthcare providers exposure to cyclophosphamide to almost undetectable levels. HubMed – drug

Evaluation of an Electricity-free, Culture-based Approach for Detecting Typhoidal Salmonella Bacteremia during Enteric Fever in a High Burden, Resource-limited Setting.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Jun; 7(6): e2292
Andrews JR, Prajapati KG, Eypper E, Shrestha P, Shakya M, Pathak KR, Joshi N, Tiwari P, Risal M, Koirala S, Karkey A, Dongol S, Wen S, Smith AB, Maru D, Basnyat B, Baker S, Farrar J, Ryan ET, Hohmann E, Arjyal A

In many rural areas at risk for enteric fever, there are few data on Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) incidence, due to limited laboratory capacity for microbiologic culture. Here, we describe an approach that permits recovery of the causative agents of enteric fever in such settings. This approach involves the use of an electricity-free incubator based upon use of phase-change materials. We compared this against conventional blood culture for detection of typhoidal Salmonella.Three hundred and four patients with undifferentiated fever attending the outpatient and emergency departments of a public hospital in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal were recruited. Conventional blood culture was compared against an electricity-free culture approach. Blood from 66 (21.7%) patients tested positive for a Gram-negative bacterium by at least one of the two methods. Sixty-five (21.4%) patients tested blood culture positive for S. Typhi (30; 9.9%) or S. Paratyphi A (35; 11.5%). From the 65 individuals with culture-confirmed enteric fever, 55 (84.6%) were identified by the conventional blood culture and 60 (92.3%) were identified by the experimental method. Median time-to-positivity was 2 days for both procedures. The experimental approach was falsely positive due to probable skin contaminants in 2 of 239 individuals (0.8%). The percentages of positive and negative agreement for diagnosis of enteric fever were 90.9% (95% CI: 80.0%-97.0%) and 96.0% (92.7%-98.1%), respectively. After initial incubation, Salmonella isolates could be readily recovered from blood culture bottles maintained at room temperature for six months.A simple culture approach based upon a phase-change incubator can be used to isolate agents of enteric fever. This approach could be used as a surveillance tool to assess incidence and drug resistance of the etiologic agents of enteric fever in settings without reliable local access to electricity or local diagnostic microbiology laboratories. HubMed – drug

Microfluidic separation of live and dead yeast cells using reservoir-based dielectrophoresis.

Biomicrofluidics. 2012 Sep; 6(3): 34102
Patel S, Showers D, Vedantam P, Tzeng TR, Qian S, Xuan X

Separating live and dead cells is critical to the diagnosis of early stage diseases and to the efficacy test of drug screening, etc. This work demonstrates a novel microfluidic approach to dielectrophoretic separation of yeast cells by viability. It exploits the cell dielectrophoresis that is induced by the inherent electric field gradient at the reservoir-microchannel junction to selectively trap dead yeast cells and continuously separate them from live ones right inside the reservoir. This approach is therefore termed reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP). It has unique advantages as compared to existing dielectrophoretic approaches such as the occupation of zero channel space and the elimination of any mechanical or electrical parts inside microchannels. Such an rDEP cell sorter can be readily integrated with other components into lab-on-a-chip devices for applications to biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. HubMed – drug

Antibody Drug Conjugate Bioinformatics: Drug Delivery through the Letterbox.

Comput Math Methods Med. 2013; 2013: 282398
Vlachakis D, Kossida S

Antibodies appear to be the first line of defence in the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and thereby are involved in a multitude of biochemical mechanisms, such as regulation of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. It goes without saying that a full understanding of antibody function is required for the development of novel antibody-interacting drugs. These drugs are the Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs), which are a new type of targeted therapy, used for example for cancer. They consist of an antibody (or antibody fragment such as a single-chain variable fragment [scFv]) linked to a payload drug (often cytotoxic). Because of the targeting, the side effects should be lower and give a wider therapeutic window. Overall, the underlying principle of ADCs is to discern the delivery of a drug that is cytotoxic to a target that is cancerous, hoping to increase the antitumoural potency of the original drug by reducing adverse effects and side effects, such as toxicity of the cancer target. This is a pioneering field that employs state-of-the-art computational and molecular biology methods in the fight against cancer using ADCs. HubMed – drug