Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar 11;
Kim SW, Kang HJ, Kim SY, Kim JM, Yoon JS, Jung SW, Lee MS, Yim HW, Jun TY

OBJECTIVE: The impact of childhood adversity persists across the life course. This study aimed to investigate the associations of childhood adversity with the course, suicidality, and treatment outcomes of depressive disorders. METHOD: A total of 919 people with depressive disorders were recruited. Childhood adversities (?12 years old) were ascertained using a checklist, in sexual abuse, physical abuse by parents, and separation of parents. Various assessment scales were administered at baseline and over 12 weeks of antidepressants treatment. RESULTS: All three forms of childhood adversity were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing more current stressful events. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were significantly higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale were significantly higher, and scores on the WHO Quality of life instrument were significantly lower in participants with a history of physical abuse by parents. They were more likely to receive augmentation and combination treatment after the initial antidepressant treatment, whereas overall response rates to treatment did not differ. Scores on the Beck Scale for suicide ideation were significantly higher after treatment and/or at baseline in patients with sexual or physical abuse. Physical illness was more prevalent in individuals with physical abuse by parents or separation of parents. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive patients with a history of childhood adversities had more severe and chronic forms of depression with high suicidality. More intensive treatment with particular clinical attention is indicated for this special population. HubMed – depression



Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar 11;
Iacoviello BM, Alloy LB, Abramson LY, Choi JY, Morgan JE

BACKGROUND: Hopelessness depression (HD) is a subtype of depression postulated by the Hopelessness Theory of Depression to present as a constellation of symptoms occurring when an individual with a specific cognitive vulnerability (negative inferential style) experiences negative life events. In the current study, the course of HD episodes was evaluated prospectively and analyzed to explore patterns of symptom onset and remission. METHODS: In 169 HD episodes reported by 65 participants, survival analyses were conducted on the time to onset or remission for 29 individual symptoms. Survival analyses yielded probability density graphs for risk of onset and risk of offset that indicated whether the symptom tended to appear or remit early, late, or unpredictably during the episode. RESULTS: The symptom of hopelessness often appeared earliest in HD episodes, followed by self-blame, brooding/worry, decreased self-esteem, dependency, and decreased appetite. Hopelessness, decreased self-esteem, self-blame, brooding/worry, dependency, and increased appetite were typically the latest symptoms to remit. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provided evidence for patterns of symptom onset and remission in HD episodes. Hopelessness and other symptoms predicted to appear according to the Hopelessness Theory were generally the earliest to appear, latest to remit, and appeared to form the core syndrome of these HD episodes. Identifying patterns of symptom onset and remission may provide a tool for subtyping depression episodes. Clinically, these results point to the utility of attending to patterns of symptom onset and remission in patients presenting with HD episodes, particularly for treatment planning and monitoring. HubMed – depression


Action-effect binding is decreased in motor conversion disorder: Implications for sense of agency.

Mov Disord. 2013 Mar 14;
Kranick SM, Moore JW, Yusuf N, Martinez VT, Lafaver K, Edwards MJ, Mehta AR, Collins P, Harrison NA, Haggard P, Hallett M, Voon V

The abnormal movements seen in motor conversion disorder are affected by distraction and entrainment, similar to voluntary movement. Unlike voluntary movement, however, patients lack a sense of control for the abnormal movements, a failure of “self-agency.” The action-effect binding paradigm has been used to quantify the sense of self-agency, because subjective contraction of time between an action and its effect only occurs if the patient feels that they are the agent responsible for the action. We used this paradigm, coupled with emotional stimuli, to investigate the sense of agency with voluntary movements in patients with motor conversion disorder. Twenty patients with motor conversion disorder and 20 age-matched and sex-matched healthy volunteers used a rotating clock to judge the time of their own voluntary key presses (action) and a subsequent auditory tone (effect) after they completed conditioning blocks in which high, medium, and low tones were coupled to images of happy, fearful, and neutral faces. The results replicated those produced previously: it was reported that an effect after a voluntary action occurred earlier, and the preceding action occurred later, compared with trials that used only key presses or tones. Patients had reduced overall binding scores relative to healthy volunteers, suggesting a reduced sense of agency. There was no effect of the emotional stimuli (faces) or other interaction effects. Healthy volunteers with subclinical depressive symptoms had higher overall binding scores. We demonstrate that patients with motor conversion disorder have decreased action-effect binding for normal voluntary movements compared with healthy volunteers, consistent with the greater experience of lack of control. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. HubMed – depression



Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar 14;
Maguen S, Madden E, Cohen B, Bertenthal D, Seal K

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) represent a large public health burden, affecting an estimated 60-70 million Americans annually. Our goal was to examine the relationship between GID and the most common mental health disorders in a national group of newly returning veterans. We also evaluated gender differences in the association of mental health disorders and GID. METHODS: We utilized a retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis of veterans’ health records. Participants were 603,221 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of VA healthcare from October 7, 2001 (start of the war in Afghanistan) to December 31, 2010. RESULTS: The prevalence of GID in newly returning veterans was nearly 20%, and veterans with a mental health disorder were at least twice as likely to have a GID as those without mental health disorders. For women, the increased risk of all GIDs was greatest among those with depression. Among men, the increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was greatest among those with posttraumatic stress disorder. IBS was the GID most strongly associated with mental health conditions among both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The large proportion of newly returning veterans with GIDs and comorbid mental health diagnoses is concerning. Successful detection and treatment of GIDs associated with mental health disorders will require integrated efforts from primary care and mental health. HubMed – depression