Achilles and Patellar Tendinopathy Loading Programmes : A Systematic Review Comparing Clinical Outcomes and Identifying Potential Mechanisms for Effectiveness.

Achilles and Patellar Tendinopathy Loading Programmes : A Systematic Review Comparing Clinical Outcomes and Identifying Potential Mechanisms for Effectiveness.

Sports Med. 2013 Mar 15;
Malliaras P, Barton CJ, Reeves ND, Langberg H

INTRODUCTION: Achilles and patellar tendinopathy are overuse injuries that are common among athletes. Isolated eccentric muscle training has become the dominant conservative management strategy for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy but, in some cases, up to 45 % of patients may not respond. Eccentric-concentric progressing to eccentric (Silbernagel combined) and eccentric-concentric isotonic (heavy-slow resistance; HSR) loading have also been investigated. In order for clinicians to make informed decisions, they need to be aware of the loading options and comparative evidence. The mechanisms of loading also need to be elucidated in order to focus treatment to patient deficits and refine loading programmes in future studies. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to evaluate the evidence in studies that compare two or more loading programmes in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy, and to review the non-clinical outcomes (potential mechanisms), such as improved imaging outcomes, associated with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Comprehensive searching (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents and SPORTDiscus(™)) identified 403 studies. Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion and quality. The final yield included 32 studies; ten compared loading programmes and 28 investigated at least one potential mechanism (six studies compared loading programmes and investigated potential mechanisms). RESULTS: This review has identified limited (Achilles) and conflicting (patellar) evidence that clinical outcomes are superior with eccentric loading compared with other loading programmes, questioning the currently entrenched clinical approach to these injuries. There is equivalent evidence for Silbernagel combined (Achilles) and greater evidence for HSR loading (patellar). The only potential mechanism that was consistently associated with improved clinical outcomes in both Achilles and patellar tendon rehabilitation was improved neuromuscular performance (e.g. torque, work, endurance), and Silbernagel-combined (Achilles) HSR loading (patellar) had an equivalent or higher level of evidence than isolated eccentric loading. In the Achilles tendon, a majority of studies did not find an association between improved imaging (e.g. reduced anteroposterior diameter, proportion of tendons with Doppler signal) and clinical outcomes, including all high-quality studies. In contrast, HSR loading in the patellar tendon was associated with reduced Doppler area and anteroposterior diameter, as well as greater evidence of collagen turnover, and this was not seen following eccentric loading. HSR seems more likely to lead to tendon adaptation and warrants further investigation. Improved jump performance was associated with Achilles but not patellar tendon clinical outcomes. The mechanisms associated with clinical benefit may vary between loading interventions and tendons. CONCLUSION: There is little clinical or mechanistic evidence for isolating the eccentric component, although it should be made clear that there is a paucity of good quality evidence and several potential mechanisms have not been investigated, such as neural adaptation and central nervous system changes (e.g. cortical reorganization). Clinicians should consider eccentric-concentric loading alongside or instead of eccentric loading in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy. Good-quality studies comparing loading programmes and evaluating clinical and mechanistic outcomes are needed in both Achilles and patellar tendinopathy rehabilitation. HubMed – rehab


Perfectionism, Type D Personality, and Illness-Related Coping Styles in Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients.

J Health Psychol. 2013 Mar 14;
Shanmugasegaram S, Flett G, Madan M, Oh P, Marzolini S, Reitav J, Hewitt P, Sturman E

This study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, Type D personality, and illness-specific coping styles in 100 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Participants completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Type D Scale-14, and the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. Correlational analyses established that emotional preoccupation coping was associated with trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and Type D personality. Perfectionism was linked with both facets of the Type D construct (negative emotionality and social inhibition). Our results suggest that perfectionistic Type D patients have maladaptive coping with potential negative implications for their cardiac rehabilitation outcomes. HubMed – rehab


Cost Comparison: Limb Salvage Versus Amputation in Diabetic Patients With Charcot Foot.

Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Mar 14;
Gil J, Schiff AP, Pinzur MS

BACKGROUND: The negative impact on health-related quality of life in patients with Charcot foot has prompted operative correction of the acquired deformity. Comparative effectiveness financial models are being introduced to provide valuable information to assist clinical decision making. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with Charcot foot underwent operative correction with the use of circular external fixation. Thirty-eight (50%) had osteomyelitis. A control group was created from 17 diabetic patients who successfully underwent transtibial amputation and prosthetic fitting during the same period. Cost of care during the 12 months following surgery was derived from inpatient hospitalization, placement in a rehabilitation unit or skilled nursing facility, home health care including parenteral antibiotic therapy, physical therapy, and purchase of prosthetic devices or footwear. RESULTS: Fifty-three of the patients with limb salvage (69.7%) did not require inpatient rehabilitation. Their average cost of care was $ 56,712. Fourteen of the patients with amputation (82.4%) required inpatient rehabilitation, with an average cost of $ 49,251. CONCLUSIONS: Many surgeons now favor operative correction of Charcot foot deformity. This investigation provides preliminary data on the relative cost of transtibial amputation and prosthetic limb fitting compared with limb salvage. The use of comparative effectiveness models such as this simple attempt may provide valuable information in planning resource allocation for similar complex groups of patients. HubMed – rehab


Cerebral Microbleeds and Recurrent Stroke Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Cohorts.

Stroke. 2013 Mar 14;
Charidimou A, Kakar P, Fox Z, Werring DJ

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and future stroke risk (including intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack.Materials and METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts with recent IS/transient ischemic attack. We critically appraised studies and calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects method, for ICH or recurrent IS, in patients with versus without CMBs. RESULTS: We pooled data from 10 cohorts, including 3067 patients. CMBs were associated with a significant increased risk of any recurrent stroke (OR, 2.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.70-2.98; P<0.0001), ICH (OR, 8.52; 95%CI, 4.23-17.18; P=0.007), and IS (OR, 1.55; 95%CI, 1.12-2.13; P<0.0001). When stratified by study population ethnicity (Asian versus Western [mainly white European]), the association of CMBs with ICH was significant for Asian cohorts (5 studies; n=1915; OR, 10.43; 95%CI, 4.59-23.72; P<0.0001) but borderline and of lower magnitude for Western cohorts (4 studies; n=885; OR, 3.87; 95%CI, 0.91-16.4; P=0.066). By contrast, there was a significant association of CMBs with recurrent IS in Western (3 studies; n=899) but not Asian cohorts (4 studies; n=1357; OR, 2.23; 95%CI, 1.29-3.85; P=0.004 compared with OR, 1.30; 95%CI, 0.88-1.93; P=0.192, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There is consistent evidence of an increased risk of recurrent stroke after IS or transient ischemic attack in patients with CMBs. The risk for spontaneous ICH appears to be greater than the risk for recurrent IS. Our findings also suggest that the balance of risk for ICH versus IS differs between Asian and Western cohorts. HubMed – rehab