Hypogonadism Among HIV-Infected Men in Thailand.

Hypogonadism among HIV-infected men in Thailand.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Int J STD AIDS. 2012 Dec; 23(12): 876-81
Sunchatawirul K, Tantiwongse K, Chathaisong P, Thongyen S, Chumpathat N, Manosuthi W

This study assessed prevalence and associated factors of hypogonadism among 491 HIV-infected Thai men who visited the HIV outpatient clinic. All participants were interviewed and data were collected from medical records, including demographic and HIV-related illness characteristics. They also completed questionnaires relevant to hypogonadal symptoms, sexual function and depression. All participants’ blood samples were obtained to check for total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin levels, and free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. Hypogonadism was diagnosed if a cFT level of <0.225 nmol/L was detected. The median age of the participants was 37 years old (ranging from 34 to 44 years old). HIV infection was diagnosed for a median of 77 (47-99) months. Eight of 491 participants (2%) had hypertension and 1% had diabetes mellitus (DM). Fourteen (3%) used methadone and 23% had SHBG level over 70 nmol/L. Of the 491 participants, 123 (25%) men were diagnosed with hypogonadism. The univariate analyses indicated that DM, hypertension, methadone use, SHBG level >70 nmol/L group and lack of antiretroviral therapy were associated with hypogonadism. In multivariate analysis, a SHBG level >70 nmol/L was the only factor that was significantly associated with hypogonadism (odds ratio [OR] = 1.922, P = 0.007).
HubMed – depression


Cost-effectiveness analyses for mirtazapine and sertraline in dementia: randomised controlled trial.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Br J Psychiatry. 2012 Dec 20;
Romeo R, Knapp M, Hellier J, Dewey M, Ballard C, Baldwin R, Bentham P, Burns A, Fox C, Holmes C, Katona C, Lawton C, Lindesay J, Livingston G, McCrae N, Moniz-Cook E, Murray J, Nurock S, O’Brien J, Poppe M, Thomas A, Walwyn R, Wilson K, Banerjee S

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and costly comorbidity in dementia. There are very few data on the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants for depression in dementia and their effects on carer outcomes. AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine compared with placebo for depression in dementia. METHOD: A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial with a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis (trial registration: ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38). The primary cost-effectiveness analysis compared differences in treatment costs for patients receiving sertraline, mirtazapine or placebo with differences in effectiveness measured by the primary outcome, total Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) score, over two time periods: 0-13 weeks and 0-39 weeks. The secondary evaluation was a cost-utility analysis using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) computed from the Euro-Qual (EQ-5D) and societal weights over those same periods. RESULTS: There were 339 participants randomised and 326 with costs data (111 placebo, 107 sertraline, 108 mirtazapine). For the primary outcome, decrease in depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective compared with placebo. However, examining secondary outcomes, the time spent by unpaid carers caring for participants in the mirtazapine group was almost half that for patients receiving placebo (6.74 v. 12.27 hours per week) or sertraline (6.74 v. 12.32 hours per week). Informal care costs over 39 weeks were £1510 and £1522 less for the mirtazapine group compared with placebo and sertraline respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of reducing depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective for treating depression in dementia. However, mirtazapine does appear likely to have been cost-effective if costing includes the impact on unpaid carers and with quality of life included in the outcome. Unpaid (family) carer costs were lower with mirtazapine than sertraline or placebo. This may have been mediated via the putative ability of mirtazapine to ameliorate sleep disturbances and anxiety. Given the priority and the potential value of supporting family carers of people with dementia, further research is warranted to investigate the potential of mirtazapine to help with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia and in supporting carers.
HubMed – depression


Baseline Characteristics of Patients in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) Trial.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Circ Heart Fail. 2012 Dec 20;
Shah SJ, Heitner JF, Sweitzer NK, Anand IS, Kim HY, Harty B, Boineau R, Clausell N, Desai AS, Diaz R, Fleg JL, Gordeev I, Lewis EF, Markov V, O’Meara E, Kabulia B, Shaburishvili T, Solomon SD, Pitt B, Pfeffer MA, Li R

BACKGROUND: -Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of spironolactone versus placebo for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We sought to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of subjects enrolled in TOPCAT relative to other contemporary observational studies and randomized clinical trials of HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Between August 2006 and January 2012, 3445 patients with symptomatic HFpEF from 270 sites in 6 countries were enrolled in TOPCAT. At the baseline study visit, all subjects provided a detailed medical history and underwent physical examination, electrocardiography, quality of life, and laboratory assessment. Key parameters were compared to other large, contemporary HFpEF studies. The mean age was 68.6 ±9.6 years with a slight female predominance (52%); mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); and comorbidities were common. History of hypertension (91% prevalence in TOPCAT) exceeded all other major HFpEF clinical trials. However, baseline blood pressure was well controlled (129/76 mmHg; systolic blood pressure 7-16 mmHg lower than other similar trials). Other common comorbidities included coronary artery disease (57%), atrial fibrillation (35%), chronic kidney disease (38%) and diabetes (32%). Self-reported activity levels were low, quality of life scores were comparable to those reported for patients with end-stage renal disease, and the prevalence of moderate or greater depression was 27%. CONCLUSIONS: -TOPCAT subjects share many common characteristics with contemporary HFpEF cohorts. Low activity level, significantly decreased quality of life, and depression were common at baseline in TOPCAT, underscoring the continued unmet need for evidence-based treatment strategies in HFpEF. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00094302.
HubMed – depression



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