Hippotherapy in Adult Patients With Chronic Brain Disorders: A Pilot Study.

Hippotherapy in adult patients with chronic brain disorders: a pilot study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Ann Rehabil Med. 2012 Dec; 36(6): 756-61
Sunwoo H, Chang WH, Kwon JY, Kim TW, Lee JY, Kim YH

To investigate the effects of hippotherapy for adult patients with brain disorders.Eight chronic brain disorder patients (7 males, mean age 42.4±16.6 years) were recruited. The mean duration from injury was 7.9±7.7 years. The diagnoses were stroke (n=5), traumatic brain disorder (n=2), and cerebral palsy (n=1). Hippotherapy sessions were conducted twice a week for eight consecutive weeks in an indoor riding arena. Each hippotherapy session lasted 30 minutes. All participants were evaluated by the Berg balance scale, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10 Meter Walking Test, Functional Ambulatory Category, Korean Beck Depression Inventory, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We performed baseline assessments twice just before starting hippotherapy. We also assessed the participants immediately after hippotherapy and at eight weeks after hippotherapy.All participants showed no difference in balance, gait function, and emotion between the two baseline assessments before hippotherapy. During the eight-week hippotherapy program, all participants showed neither adverse effects nor any accidents; all had good compliance. After hippotherapy, there were significant improvements in balance and gait speed in comparison with the baseline assessment (p<0.05), and these effects were sustained for two months after hippotherapy. However, there was no significant difference in emotion after hippotherapy.We could observe hippotherapy to be a safe and effective alternative therapy for adult patients with brain disorders in improving balance and gait function. Further future studies are warranted to delineate the benefits of hippotherapy on chronic stroke patients. HubMed – depression


Asenapine in bipolar I disorder: evidence and place in patient management.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2013 Jan; 4(1): 5-14
Samalin L, Charpeaud T, Llorca PM

Asenapine is a new second-generation antipsychotic approved in September 2010 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of bipolar disorder. It demonstrated significant efficacy compared with placebo in acute mania or mixed episodes as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizers (lithium or valproate). Early improvement was noted at day 2 and was strongly associated with response and remission at week 3. Asenapine also appeared effective in treating acute mania in older patients with bipolar disorder. Post hoc analyses of asenapine showed efficacy in treating depressive symptoms during manic or mixed episodes compared with placebo. The efficacy of asenapine in patients with acute mania appeared to remain constant during maintenance treatment. Asenapine was reasonably well tolerated, especially with regard to metabolic effects. There were minimal signs of glucose elevation or lipid changes and the risk of weight gain appeared limited. The prolactin elevation was smaller than other antipsychotic comparators. Only oral hypoesthesia occurred as a new adverse event compared with other second-generation antipsychotics. Asenapine presents several advantages over other second-generation antipsychotics, such as sublingual formulation, early efficacy and good metabolic tolerability. This tolerability profile confirms the heterogeneity of the second-generation antipsychotic class and supports the view of some authors for the need to re-evaluate the boundaries of this group.
HubMed – depression


Management of patients with Alzheimer’s disease: pharmacological treatment and quality of life.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2012 Jul; 3(4): 183-93
Mossello E, Ballini E

A methodological approach to quality of life (QoL) assessment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is challenging and few clinical trials have included it among outcomes, with conflicting results. In this review an indirect appraisal of evidence has been performed, searching the literature for the effect of drug treatments on determinants of QoL in AD. Among clinical factors associated with QoL, possible targets of drugs include cognition, which seems to be associated with QoL in early disease and can be positively affected by cholinesterase inhibitors (CIs) in this stage; functional decline, the risk of which can be decreased by CIs and memantine (MEM); behavioral and psychological symptoms, which can be reduced by MEM and atypical antipsychotics. Long-term observational studies have associated CIs and MEM treatment with a reduced institutionalization risk. According to the evidence, drug treatment of depression associated with AD should not be first choice from a QoL perspective, while treatment of pain can have beneficial effects on wellbeing indicators also in the late stages of the disease. Possible drug-related adverse events can affect QoL and should always be weighed against expected benefits from the patient’s perspective. For this reason antipsychotic treatment is often problematic in AD and should be limited to severe psychosis and aggression, using the lowest effective doses for the shortest possible period. Conversely titration of CIs is necessary to reach the most effective dosages, although dose-related risk of adverse events has to be taken into account. Finally, CIs and MEM have been shown to reduce caregiver burden in randomized trials, possibly affecting caregivers’ QoL.
HubMed – depression



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