Fucoidan Inhibits the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Independent of Angiogenesis.

Fucoidan inhibits the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of angiogenesis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 692549
Zhu C, Cao R, Zhang SX, Man YN, Wu XZ

Some sulphated polysaccharides can bind bFGF but are unable to present bFGF to its high-affinity receptors. Fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, which has been used as an anticancer drug in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, exhibits a variety of anticancer effects, including the induction of the apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells, the inhibition of the growth of cancer cells, the induction of angiogenesis, and the improvement of antitumour immunity. Our research shows that fucoidan dose not inhibit the expressions of VEGF, bFGF, IL-8, and heparanase in HCC cells and/or tumour tissues. Moreover, fucoidan exhibited low affinity for bFGF and could not block the binding of bFGF to heparan sulphated. Although fucoidan had no effect on angiogenesis and apoptosis in vivo, this drug significantly inhibited the tumour growth and the expression of PCNA. These results suggest that fucoidan exhibits an anticancer effect in vivo at least partly through inhibition of the proliferation of HCC cells, although it is unable to suppress the angiogenesis induced by HCC. HubMed – drug


Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 603634
Yuandani , Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mohamad HF, Husain K, Abdul Razak AF

The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1? µ g/mL). There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells). The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7? µ g/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4? µ g/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9? µ g/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute. HubMed – drug


Optimizing combinations of flavonoids deriving from astragali radix in activating the regulatory element of erythropoietin by a feedback system control scheme.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 541436
Yu H, Zhang WL, Ding X, Zheng KY, Ho CM, Tsim KW, Lee YK

Identifying potent drug combination from a herbal mixture is usually quite challenging, due to a large number of possible trials. Using an engineering approach of the feedback system control (FSC) scheme, we identified the potential best combinations of four flavonoids, including formononetin, ononin, calycosin, and calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside deriving from Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), which provided the best biological action at minimal doses. Out of more than one thousand possible combinations, only tens of trials were required to optimize the flavonoid combinations that stimulated a maximal transcriptional activity of hypoxia response element (HRE), a critical regulator for erythropoietin (EPO) transcription, in cultured human embryonic kidney fibroblast (HEK293T). By using FSC scheme, 90% of the work and time can be saved, and the optimized flavonoid combinations increased the HRE mediated transcriptional activity by ~3-fold as compared with individual flavonoid, while the amount of flavonoids was reduced by ~10-fold. Our study suggests that the optimized combination of flavonoids may have strong effect in activating the regulatory element of erythropoietin at very low dosage, which may be used as new source of natural hematopoietic agent. The present work also indicates that the FSC scheme is able to serve as an efficient and model-free approach to optimize the drug combination of different ingredients within a herbal decoction. HubMed – drug


Treating type 2 diabetes mellitus with traditional chinese and Indian medicinal herbs.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 343594
Wang Z, Wang J, Chan P

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. HubMed – drug