Food Pricing Strategies, Population Diets, and Non-Communicable Disease: A Systematic Review of Simulation Studies.

Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

PLoS Med. 2012 Dec; 9(12): e1001353
Eyles H, Ni Mhurchu C, Nghiem N, Blakely T

Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption) (objective 1); Health and disease outcomes (objective 2), and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3).Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ?3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake) or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE) estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good). Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1) taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n?=?4 studies), -0.93 (range, -0.06, -2.43), and a modelled -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04%) reduction in energy (calorie) intake for each 1% price increase (n?=?3 studies); (2) taxes on saturated fat: -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04%) reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n?=?5 studies); and (3) subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n?=?3 studies), -0.35 (-0.21, -0.77). Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce disparities.Based on modelling studies, taxes on carbonated drinks and saturated fat and subsidies on fruits and vegetables would be associated with beneficial dietary change, with the potential for improved health. Additional research into possible compensatory purchasing and population health outcomes is needed. Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.
HubMed – eating


Have guidelines addressing physical activity been established in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

Filed under: Eating Disorders

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec 14; 18(46): 6790-800
Finelli C, Tarantino G

The purpose of this review was to highlight, in relation to the currently accepted pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the known exercise habits of patients with NAFLD and to detail the benefits of lifestyle modification with exercise (and/or physical activity) on parameters of metabolic syndrome. More rigorous, controlled studies of longer duration and defined histopathological end-points comparing exercise alone and other treatment are needed before better, evidence-based physical activity modification guidelines can be established, since several questions remain unanswered.
HubMed – eating


Possible Mechanisms of Circulating PYY-Induced Satiation in Male Rats.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Endocrinology. 2012 Dec 13;
Stadlbauer U, Arnold M, Weber E, Langhans W

Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is implicated in eating control, but the site(s) and mechanism(s) of its action remain uncertain. We tested acute effects of intrameal hepatic portal vein (HPV) PYY(3-36) infusions on eating in adult, male rats and measured HPV and jugular vein (JV) plasma levels of PYY in response to a solid, mixed-nutrient meal. We also examined the effects of HPV PYY(3-36) infusions on JV plasma levels, flavor acceptance, and neuronal activation. Intrameal HPV PYY(3-36) infusions [1 and 3 nmol/kg body weight (BW)] selectively reduced (P < 0.05) ongoing meal size. HPV PYY levels increased (P < 0.05) during a chow (12.5 kcal) or an isocaloric high-fat meal. JV PYY levels were generally lower than HPV levels but also increased in response to the chow meal. HPV PYY(3-36) infusion (1 nmol/kg BW) caused a greater increase in JV PYY than a meal, but neither 1 nor 3 nmol/kg BW PYY(3-36) caused conditioned flavor avoidance. HPV PYY(3-36) (1 nmol/kg BW) increased the number of c-Fos-expressing cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii, the hypothalamic arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, the central area of the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens but not in the area postrema and parabrachial nucleus. These data show that HPV infusions of PYY(3-36) inhibit eating in rats without causing avoidance, and they identify some brain areas that might be involved. Endogenous PYY may induce satiation by acting directly in the brain, but further studies should examine whether PYY(3-36) administrations that mimic the meal-induced increase in plasma PYY are sufficient to inhibit eating. HubMed – eating


A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Health Educ Behav. 2012 Dec 13;
Mead EL, Gittelsohn J, Roache C, Corriveau A, Sharma S

Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (? = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (? = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.
HubMed – eating



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