Food Choice, Eating Behavior, and Food Liking Differs Between Lean/normal and Overweight/obese, Low-Income Women.

Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

Appetite. 2013 Feb 18;
Dressler H, Smith C

The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n =83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. HubMed – eating


[Splenic vein aneurysm – a case report].

Magy Seb. 2013 Feb; 66(1): 27-9
Dzsinich C, Fazekas P, Barta L, Nyiri G, Vallus G, Tóth L, Beke G, Berek P

Authors report a very rare case of splenic vein aneurysm in a 34-year-old female patient. She underwent investigation for upper abdominal pain which was not related to eating. Diagnostic workup revealed a thin wall saccular splenic vein aneurysm of 40 mm in diameter which caused an indentation of the posterior wall of the pancreas. She underwent surgery, a tangential resection was carried out preserving the continuity of the splenic vein and spleen. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and she was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. HubMed – eating


Improving fruit and wine: what does genomics have to offer?

Trends Genet. 2013 Feb 18;
Myles S

Will we still be drinking wines made from Pinot Noir and eating McIntosh apples in the 23rd century? Elite grape and apple cultivars, vegetatively propagated for centuries, are highly susceptible to evolving pathogens. In response, growers continually expand their agrochemical weaponry at enormous environmental costs. By contrast, breeders are seeking disease-resistant, tastier alternatives to the handful of dominant cultivars by exploring genetic diversity in these fruits. However, this is a formidable task because consumers cling to ancient cultivars, and breeding long-lived woody perennials is laborious and expensive. Although genomics tools may not solve the former sociocultural dilemma, they can help overcome the latter practical obstacles. Screening seedlings for desirable genetic profiles using molecular techniques reduces the time and high costs associated with growing plants to maturity and evaluating fruit. Such screening is currently in its infancy in apples and grapes, but the adoption of modern DNA sequencing technologies and statistical approaches promises to accelerate cultivar improvement significantly. Here, I describe standard approaches for molecular breeding in apples and grapes, and some of the challenges associated with the collection and analysis of next-generation DNA sequence data. In addition, I urge breeders to establish populations specifically designed for a future of inexpensive genome sequencing. HubMed – eating


Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

Appl Neuropsychol Child. 2013 Jan; 2(1): 47-63
Allott K, Proffitt TM, McGorry PD, Pantelis C, Wood SJ, Cumner M, Brewer WJ

Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed. HubMed – eating


Deoxynivalenol impairs the immune functions of neutrophils.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Feb 21;
Gauthier T, Waché Y, Laffitte J, Taranu I, Saeedikouzehkonani N, Mori Y, Oswald IP

SCOPE: Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., is toxic to many animal species, with pigs being the most sensitive species to the toxin. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of DON on pig polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), the first line of defense against infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: PMNs isolated from pig blood samples were stimulated with LPS to mimic infection. DON (0.5-10 ?M) altered three main functions of pig PMNs: LPS-induced secretion of IL-8, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capability. This alteration of PMN properties was due to apoptotis induced by DON exposure. Using Western blot and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that this process included the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the activation of caspase-3. The effect of DON was mediated by the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase within the first 30 min of exposure. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that low concentrations of DON can alter the immune functions of porcine PMNs and suggests the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the signal transduction pathway. These immunosuppressive effects of DON may have implications for humans and/or animals when eating contaminated food/feed. HubMed – eating