Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Management on Reduction of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Effect of mindfulness based stress management on reduction of generalized anxiety disorder.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Iran J Public Health. 2012; 41(10): 24-8
Asmaee Majid S, Seghatoleslam T, Homan H, Akhvast A, Habil H

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an eight-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program would be an acceptable and effective treatment for patients suffering from GAD.Eligible subjects with generalized anxiety disorder were recruited to Parsa Hospital and Shahid Rajaee Counseling and Social Work Center from June 2009 to October 2011. An experienced psychiatrist diagnosed these patients with a structured clinical interview for axis I disorders and a clinical psychologist conducted a clinical interview for in order to confirm the diagnosis. Subjects were randomized to an eight week course of group mindfulness based stress reduction program (16 subjects) or a control group (15 subjects). Subjects completed measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms and worry at baseline and end of treatment. To investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and worry symptoms and mindfulness based stress reduction as well as controlling pretest effect, data were analyzed with analysis of covariance.There were significant reductions in anxiety (P<0/001), depressive (P<0/001) and worry symptoms (P<0/001) from baseline to end of treatment.Mindfulness- based stress reduction may be an acceptable intervention in the improvement of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms. Future trials include development of randomized clinical trials of MBSR for GAD. HubMed – depression


Role of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid-1 receptors in cerebrocortical blood flow regulation.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e53390
Iring A, Ruisanchez E, Leszl-Ishiguro M, Horváth B, Benk? R, Lacza Z, Járai Z, Sándor P, Di Marzo V, Pacher P, Benyó Z

Endocannabinoids are among the most intensively studied lipid mediators of cardiovascular functions. In the present study the effects of decreased and increased activity of the endocannabinoid system (achieved by cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor blockade and inhibition of cannabinoid reuptake, respectively) on the systemic and cerebral circulation were analyzed under steady-state physiological conditions and during hypoxia and hypercapnia (H/H).In anesthetized spontaneously ventilating rats the CB1-receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM-251 (10 mg/kg, i.v.) failed to influence blood pressure (BP), cerebrocortical blood flow (CoBF, measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry) or arterial blood gas levels. In contrast, the putative cannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM-404 (10 mg/kg, i.v.) induced triphasic responses, some of which could be blocked by AM-251. Hypertension during phase I was resistant to AM-251, whereas the concomitant CoBF-increase was attenuated. In contrast, hypotension during phase III was sensitive to AM-251, whereas the concomitant CoBF-decrease was not. Therefore, CoBF autoregulation appeared to shift towards higher BP levels after CB1-blockade. During phase II H/H developed due to respiratory depression, which could be inhibited by AM-251. Interestingly, however, the concomitant rise in CoBF remained unchanged after AM-251, indicating that CB1-blockade potentially enhanced the reactivity of the CoBF to H/H. In accordance with this hypothesis, AM-251 induced a significant enhancement of the CoBF responses during controlled stepwise H/H.Under resting physiological conditions CB1-receptor mediated mechanisms appear to have limited influence on systemic or cerebral circulation. Enhancement of endocannabinoid levels, however, induces transient CB1-independent hypertension and sustained CB1-mediated hypotension. Furthermore, enhanced endocannabinoid activity results in respiratory depression in a CB1-dependent manner. Finally, our data indicate for the first time the involvement of the endocannabinoid system and CB1-receptors in the regulation of the cerebral circulation during H/H and also raise the possibility of their contribution to the autoregulation of CoBF.
HubMed – depression


Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e52831
Dao E, Davis JC, Sharma D, Chan A, Nagamatsu LS, Liu-Ambrose T

To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women.This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion.A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05).Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass – not sub-total lean mass – is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution.
HubMed – depression


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