Eating Disorders: Visual Adaptation to Thin and Fat Bodies Transfers Across Identity.

Visual Adaptation to Thin and Fat Bodies Transfers across Identity.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

PLoS One. 2012; 7(8): e43195
Hummel D, Rudolf AK, Untch KH, Grabhorn R, Mohr HM

Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n?=?16) the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant’s own body) while in the second experiment (n?=?16) we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape – especially the thin ideal in Western societies – could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.
HubMed – eating


Treating Anorexia Nervosa in the Couple Context.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Cogn Psychother. 2012 Feb 1; 26(1): 19-33
Bulik CM, Baucom DH, Kirby JS

Anorexia nervosa is a serious mental illness that affects women and men of all ages. Despite the gravity of its chronic morbidity, risk of premature death, and societal burden, the evidence base for its treatment-especially in adults-is weak. Guided by the finding that family-based interventions confer benefit in the treatment of anorexia nervosa in adolescents, we developed a cognitive-behavioral couple-based intervention for adults with anorexia nervosa who are in committed relationships that engages both the patient and her/his partner in the treatment process. This article describes the theoretical rationale behind the development of Uniting Couples in the treatment of Anorexia nervosa (UCAN), practical considerations in delivering the intervention, and includes reflections from the developers on the challenges of working with couples in which one member suffers from anorexia nervosa. Finally, we discuss future applications of a couple-based approach to the treatment of adults with eating disorders.
HubMed – eating


CA4-04: Using the Concept of “Population Dose” in Planning and Evaluating Community Health Initiatives.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Clin Med Res. 2012 Aug; 10(3): 184-5
Cheadle A, Schwartz P, Rauzon S

Background/Aims There are a number of recent large-scale community-level initiatives targeting obesity prevention that focus on policy and environmental change strategies. To help evaluate the impact of these initiatives we have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact that we refer to as ‘population dose’ that provides an overall estimate of the impact of a strategy on food and physical activity behaviors. We provide a definition and examples of measuring population dose and show how the concept was used in an evaluation of the Kaiser Permanente’s Healthy Eating, Active Living Community Health Initiative in Northern California (HEAL-CHI). Methods HEAL-CHI was a community initiative designed to reduce obesity by implementing community- and organizational-level policy and environmental changes in three low-income communities in Northern California. Population dose was defined as the product of reach (number of people exposed to an intervention strategy) and strength (change in behavior for each person reached). Since quantitative effect sizes for policy and environmental change interventions are generally unavailable, we used a three-level rating system to assess the strength of each intervention strategy, combining evaluation results with estimates of intensity. We then examined data from youth surveys to assess whether population-level changes from the youth surveys were greater where high- dose strategies were present. Results The HEAL-CHI population-level results were inconclusive overall, but showed positive and significant findings for four of the nine youth survey comparisons where “high dose” strategies were implemented, primarily physical activity interventions targeting elementary and middle school-age youth. For example, the percent of children reporting exercising at least 20 minutes per day increased from 61% to 67% in a community implementing a high-dose after-school physical activity program, a statistically significant (p<.05) increase relative to comparison schools. Discussion The concept of population dose provides a way of comparing the potential community impact of different obesity prevention strategies and combining the estimates from multiple strategies to get an estimate of cumulative impact. In addition, we found that for the HEAL-CHI communities where there were high dose strategies in place there were a number of significant and positive population-level behavior changes. HubMed – eating


CA8-02: Implementing a Community Health Initiative Using the Chronic Care Model.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Clin Med Res. 2012 Aug; 10(3): 176
Cahill C, Beery W, Lewis-Smith K

Background/Aims Group Health, an integrated care system serving 600,000 members in Washington state, has developed a community health initiative (CHI) based on the medical home and the Chronic Care Model (expanded to emphasize community health promotion). Primary care providers want to maximize their limited time and resources for encouraging healthy behaviors but often are unaware of the full range of community services that can augment and support clinic-based care. The overall goal of the CHI is to improve health outcomes by integrating patient-centered approaches with community- based programs and services that promote better health. Methods A CHI logic model was developed that defines expected short term (phase 1), intermediate and long term outcomes for its primary audience (patients and providers), for Group Health as an organization, and for health-promoting community resources and environments. The CHI strategy involves development of a searchable, web-based database that allows providers to easily refer patients to community-based programs that promote active living, healthful eating, and effective chronic disease management. Focus groups were held with providers to determine database scope and content and secondary data were analyzed and mapped to identify where the most vulnerable populations in Group Health’s service live. Results During phase 1 the database is being piloted at a Group Health clinic in a high needs area in King County, to test clinical-community linkage strategies and to set the stage for replication throughout Group Health, among safety net providers, and in the community at large. The pilot phase evaluation is primarily a process evaluation, assessing characteristics of the program that contribute to its success, the creation of linkages to community resources, participant satisfaction, recommendations for improvement, and fidelity of implementation. Discussion The interactive database shows promise as a tool for providers to engage patients in making healthy lifestyle choices and strengthening linkages between clinical practice and community resources. Piloting and evaluating the CHI will ensure the successful replication throughout Group Health, the safety net, and the broader community, and will contribute to the field by demonstrating successful linkages between primary care and community resources.
HubMed – eating



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