Eating Disorders: Nutrition Label Use Partially Mediates the Relationship Between Attitude Toward Healthy Eating and Overall Dietary Quality Among College Students.

Nutrition label use partially mediates the relationship between attitude toward healthy eating and overall dietary quality among college students.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Mar; 112(3): 414-8
Graham DJ, Laska MN

Individuals who frequently read nutrition labels tend to both value healthy eating and engage in healthy dietary practices more than individuals who read labels infrequently. However, the relationship between label use, attitude toward healthy eating, and dietary quality remains unclear, particularly among young adults, about whom little is known with regard to nutrition label use. Our study investigated whether nutrition label use mediates the relationship between eating-related attitudes and dietary behaviors among young adult college students. Using cross-sectional online survey data collected in 2010 from a convenience sample in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN (598 attending a 2-year community college; 603 attending a public 4-year university; mean age 21.5 years; 53.4% nonwhite; 52.5% women), study findings indicate that students who reported frequently reading nutrition labels were more likely to have healthier dietary intakes (eg, less fast food and added sugar; more fiber, fruits, and vegetables) compared to those who read labels sometimes or rarely (P<0.001). Further, frequent nutrition label use was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between eating-related attitude (ie, feeling that it is important to prepare healthy meals) and dietary quality, indicating that label use may be one means by which individuals who value healthy eating translate their attitude into healthy eating behaviors. Even among those who did not believe it was important to prepare healthy meals, frequent nutrition label use was significantly associated with healthier dietary intake, suggesting that label use may operate independently of nutrition-related attitude in contributing to healthful diet. HubMed – eating


Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Aug 16;
Maskey M, Warnell F, Parr JR, Le Couteur A, McConachie H

The type, frequency and inter-relationships of emotional and behavioural problems in 863 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were investigated using the population-based Database of children with ASD living in the North East of England (Dasl(n)e). A high rate of problems was reported, with 53 % of children having 4 or more types of problems frequently. Sleep, toileting and eating problems, hyperactivity, self injury and sensory difficulties were greater in children with lower language level and in special schooling. However, anxiety, tantrums and aggression towards others were frequent regardless of age, ability or schooling. The frequency of co-existing conditions, including such emotional and behavioural problems, in children with ASD has implications for designing appropriate support services for children and families.
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Fatal Foodborne Clostridium perfringens Illness at a State Psychiatric Hospital – Louisiana, 2010.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Aug 17; 61: 605-8

Clostridium perfringens, the third most common cause of foodborne illness in the United States, most often causes a self-limited, diarrheal disease lasting 12-24 hours. Fatalities are very rare, occurring in <0.03% of cases. Death usually is caused by dehydration and occurs among the very young, the very old, and persons debilitated by illness. On May 7, 2010, 42 residents and 12 staff members at a Louisiana state psychiatric hospital experienced vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Within 24 hours, three patients had died. The three fatalities occurred among patients aged 41-61 years who were receiving medications that had anti-intestinal motility side effects. For two of three decedents, the cause of death found on postmortem examination was necrotizing colitis. Investigation by the Louisiana Office of Public Health (OPH) and CDC found that eating chicken served at dinner on May 6 was associated with illness. The chicken was cooked approximately 24 hours before serving and not cooled in accordance with hospital guidelines. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) was detected in 20 of 23 stool specimens from ill residents and staff members. Genetic testing of C. perfringens toxins isolated from chicken and stool specimens was carried out to determine which of the two strains responsible for C. perfringens foodborne illness was present. The specimens tested negative for the beta-toxin gene, excluding C. perfringens type C as the etiologic agent and implicating C. perfringens type A. This outbreak underscores the need for strict food preparation guidelines at psychiatric inpatient facilities and the potential risk for adverse outcomes among any patients with impaired intestinal motility caused by medications, disease, and extremes of age when exposed to C. perfringens enterotoxin. HubMed – eating


Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Public Health Nutr. 2012 Aug 16; 1-10
Hartmann C, Siegrist M, van der Horst K

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. DESIGN: The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. SETTING: A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30 %). SUBJECTS: The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54·4 (sd 13·5) years. RESULTS: There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. CONCLUSIONS: High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.
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The Hierarchy of the Activities of Daily Living in the Katz Index in Residents of Skilled Nursing Facilities.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2012 Aug 14;
Gerrard P

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:: Nursing facility patients are a population that has not been well studied with regard to functional status and independence previously. As such, the manner in which activities of daily living (ADL) relate to one another is not well understood in this population. An understanding of ADL difficulty ordering has helped to devise systems of functional independence grading in other populations, which have value in understanding patients’ global levels of independence and providing expectations regarding changes in function. This study seeks to examine the hierarchy of ADL in the nursing facility population. METHODS:: Data were analyzed from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, a cross-sectional data set of 13 507 skilled nursing facility subjects with functional independence items. The ADL difficulty hierarchy was determined using Rasch analysis. Item fit values for the Rasch model using Mean-Square infit statistics were also determined. The robustness of the hierarchy was tested for each ADL. Two grading systems were devised from the results of the item difficulty ordering. One was based on the most difficult item that he or she could perform, and the other assigned a grade based on the least difficult item that a subject could not perform. RESULTS:: A total of 13 113 patients were included in this analysis, the majority of whom were female and white. They had an average age of 81 years. An ordered hierarchy of ADL was found with eating being the easiest and bathing the most difficult. All items in the Katz index fit the Rasch model adequately well. The majority of patients able to perform any particular ADL were also able to perform all easier ADL. Cohen’s ? for the 2 grading systems was 0.73. DISCUSSION:: This study is the first to show the expected hierarchy of difficulty of the 6 activities of daily proposed in the Katz index in the nursing facility population. The hierarchy found in this population matches the original hierarchy found in older adults in the community and acute care settings. It is also similar to hierarchy found in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. Patients would be expected to lose or gain function based on the order of difficulty, but this remains to be confirmed. CONCLUSION:: Among the 6 activities of daily living tested here, their order from easiest to most difficult is eating, maintaining continence, transferring, toileting, dressing, and bathing. In addition, the index formed by these 6 items has construct validity in the nursing facility population.
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