Eating Disorders: Impulse Control and Related Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease.

Impulse Control and Related Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Neurodegener Dis. 2012 Oct 3;
Weintraub D, Nirenberg MJ

Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication of dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Other impulsive-compulsive behaviors have been linked to dopaminergic medications; these include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors) and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS; compulsive medication overuse). ICDs have been most closely related to the use of dopamine agonists (DAs), particularly at higher dosages; in contrast, DDS is primarily associated with shorter-acting, higher-potency dopaminergic medications, such as apomorphine and levodopa. Risk factors for ICDs may include male sex; younger age; younger age at PD onset; a pre-PD history of ICD(s); personal or family history of substance abuse; bipolar disorder; gambling problems; and impulsive personality traits. The primary treatment of ICDs in PD is discontinuation of DA therapy. Not all patients can tolerate this, however, due to worsening motor symptoms and/or DA withdrawal syndrome (a severe, stereotyped drug withdrawal syndrome similar to that of other psychostimulants). While psychiatric medications are frequently used to treat ICDs in the general population, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that they are effective in PD. Given the paucity of treatment options and potentially serious consequences of ICDs in PD, it is critical for patients to be monitored closely for their development. As empirically validated treatments for ICDs emerge, it will also be important to examine their efficacy and tolerability in individuals with comorbid PD.
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East versus West: Organic contaminant differences in brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs from South Carolina, USA and the Gulf of California, Mexico.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Sci Total Environ. 2012 Oct 1; 438C: 527-532
Vander Pol SS, Anderson DW, Jodice PG, Stuckey JE

Brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were listed as endangered in the United States in 1970, largely due to reproductive failure and mortality caused by organochlorine contaminants, such as DDT. The southeast population, P.o. carolinensis, was delisted in 1985, while the west coast population, P.o. californicus, was not delisted until 2009. As fish-eating coastal seabirds, brown pelicans may serve as a biomonitors. Organic contaminants were examined in brown pelican eggs collected from the Gulf of California in 2004 and South Carolina in 2005 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Contaminants were compared using all individual data as well as statistically pooled samples to provide similar sample sizes with little difference in results. Principal components analysis separated the Gulf of California brown pelican eggs from the South Carolina eggs based on contaminant patterns. The South Carolina population had significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes, dieldrin and mirex, while the Gulf of California eggs had higher levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). With the exception of dieldrin and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47, this pattern was observed for mussel and oyster tissues from these regions, indicating the need for further study into the differences between east and west coast brown pelican populations and ecosystem contamination patterns. HubMed – eating


Perceived stress, behavior, and body mass index among adults participating in a worksite obesity prevention program, Seattle, 2005-2007.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Prev Chronic Dis. 2012 Oct; 9: E152
Barrington WE, Ceballos RM, Bishop SK, McGregor BA, Beresford SA

Stress in numerous contexts may affect the risk for obesity through biobehavioral processes. Acute stress has been associated with diet and physical activity in some studies; the relationship between everyday stress and such behavior is not clear. The objective of this study was to examine associations between perceived stress, dietary behavior, physical activity, eating awareness, self-efficacy, and body mass index (BMI) among healthy working adults. Secondary objectives were to explore whether eating awareness modified the relationship between perceived stress and dietary behavior and perceived stress and BMI.Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) was a group-randomized worksite intervention to prevent weight gain in the Seattle metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A subset of 621 participants at 33 worksites provided complete information on perceived stress at baseline. Linear mixed models evaluated cross-sectional associations.The mean (standard deviation [SD]) Perceived Stress Scale-10 score among all participants was 12.7 (6.4), and the mean (SD) BMI was 29.2 kg/m(2 )(6.3 kg/m(2)). Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with lower levels of eating awareness, physical activity, and walking. Among participants who had low levels of eating awareness, higher levels of perceived stress were associated with fewer servings of fruit and vegetables and greater consumption of fast food meals.Dietary and physical activity behaviors of workers may be associated with average levels of perceived stress. Longitudinal studies are needed, however, to support inclusion of stress management or mindfulness techniques in workplace obesity prevention efforts.
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Contribution of evening macronutrient intake to total caloric intake and body mass index.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Appetite. 2012 Oct 1;
Baron KG, Reid KJ, Van Horn L, Zee PC

The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep timing and macronutrient intake as an approach towards better understanding of how sleep and eating affect weight regulation. Fifty-two volunteers (25 women) completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. “Average sleepers” (56%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep <5:30 am and "late sleepers" (44%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep > 5:30 am. Data were analyzed using t-tests, correlations and regression. Late sleepers consumed a greater amount of protein fat and carbohydrates in the evening (defined as after 8:00 PM) but less fat in the 4 hours before sleep. Total protein, protein, carbohydrate, and fat consumed after 8:00 PM, protein consumed within 4 hours of sleep as well as the percentage of fat consumed after 8:00 were associated with higher BMI. The amount of protein and carbohydrates consumed within 4 hours of sleep and the amount and percentage of carbohydrate and fat consumed after 8:00 PM were associated with greater total calories. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep timing and duration, protein consumed 4 hours before sleep was associated with BMI; carbohydrates consumed after 8 pm, protein and carbohydrates consumed 4 hours before sleep were associated with higher total calories. Results indicate that evening intake of macronutrients and intake before sleep are not synonymous, particularly among late sleepers. Eating in the evening or before sleep may predispose individuals to weight gain through higher total calories.
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