E-Cigarettes: What’s Known, What’s Unknown.

E-cigarettes: What’s known, what’s unknown.

Tex Dent J. 2013 May; 130(5): 446-52
Rankin KV

Use and awareness of the e-cigarette, also referred to in the literature as an Electronic Nicotine Delivery Device, has dramatically increased since its introduction to the U.S. market in 2007. The regulatory power of the Food and Drug Administration over these devices is restricted to their classification as a tobacco product, as the manufacturers do not claim a therapeutic effect, as is the case with nicotine replacement therapy. The use, safety, chemical content and efficacy of the device for smoking cessation is the subject of considerable debate in the scientific community and poses a challenge to clinicians whose patients have elected to use e-cigarettes as a replacement for (or in addition to) cigarettes, to reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke, or for smoking cessation. HubMed – drug

Risk factors of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in Bangladeshi population: a case control study.

Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2013 Apr; 39(1): 34-41
Flora MS, Amin MN, Karim MR, Afroz S, Islam S, Alam A, Hossain M

Despite success in tuberculosis control, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh is increasing and currently multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis rate is 3.6% in new cases and 19% in re-treatment cases. This study focused on determination of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis which is warranted for effective prevention strategy. An unmatched case control study was conducted in 2010. Purposively recruited 136 culture-proved multi-drug-resistant- tuberculosis cases and 152 cured tuberculosis patients were interviewed. Associations between exposure and outcome variables were initially tested by chi2-test, t-test. A result was considered significant at p value < 0.05. Effects of exposure variables were also assessed after adjusting for other variables by binary logistic regression models. Crude and adjusted Odds Ratio with 95% Confidence Interval was computed. Younger age (p = 0.008) and, peri-urban locality (p = 0.002) were associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. History of contact (p < 0.001) and tuberculosis in the past (p < 0.001) were four and eight times, respectively, more likely to influence multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Regularity [Odds Ratio 0.05; 95% Confidence Interval (0.01 to 0.39)] and always observation of treatment [Odds Ratio 0.25; 95% Confidence Interval (0.10 to 0.61)], sputum conversion [Odds Ratio 0.02; 95% Confidence Interval (0.01 to 0.08)] negatively associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Gender and socio-economic status did not show any influence. Treatment course and sputum conversion was the best predictors. Like other developing countries adequacy of treatment is the most important exposure variable. Strengthening of control activities might contribute in preventing development of resistance in tuberculosis patients. HubMed – drug

Comparative study of the effect of ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds with rosiglitazone on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2013 Apr; 39(1): 6-10
Hasan SM, Khan MI, Umar BU, Sadeque MZ

The study was performed to compare the blood glucose lowering effect of Swietenia mahagoni seeds with an oral antidiabetic drug, rosiglitazone in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Twentyfour healthy Long Evans Norwegian strain of rats were included in the study and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising 6 rats each. Group A (control group) received standard rat food for 14 days. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan 120 mg/kg body weight in Group B, C and D. Group B was given standard food for 10 days and considered as diabetic control. Group C and D were treated with ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds 1000 mg/kg and rosiglitazone 10 mg/kg orally respectively. Administration of ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds in group C and rosiglitazone in group D produced a significant reduction in blood glucose level as compared to diabetic control (group B). Histological examination of pancreas showed destruction of beta cells in Islets of pancreas in group B whereas retaining of islets and few degranulations of beta cells of pancreas found in group C and group D. The observations and results of the present study provide information that ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds has hypoglycaemic effect in experimentally induced diabetic rats which requires further investigation. HubMed – drug