Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Galactosylated Chitosan/5-Fluorouracil Nanoparticles Inhibit Mouse Hepatic Cancer Growth and Its Side Effects.

Galactosylated chitosan/5-fluorouracil nanoparticles inhibit mouse hepatic cancer growth and its side effects.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 14; 18(42): 6076-87
Cheng MR, Li Q, Wan T, He B, Han J, Chen HX, Yang FX, Wang W, Xu HZ, Ye T, Zha BB

To observe the curative effect of galactosylated chitosan (GC)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticles in liver caner mice and its side effects.The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a nanomaterial made by coupling GC and 5-FU. The release experiment was performed in vitro. The orthotropic liver cancer mouse models were established and divided into control, GC, 5-FU and GC/5-FU groups. Mice in the control and GC group received an intravenous injection of 200 ?L saline and GC, respectively. Mice in the 5-FU and GC/5-FU groups received 200 ?L (containing 0.371 mg 5-FU) 5-FU and GC/5-FU, respectively. The tumor weight and survival time were observed. The cell cycle and apoptosis in tumor tissues were monitored by flow cytometry. The expression of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and poly adenosine 50-diphosphate-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The serum blood biochemical parameters and cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxicity T lymphocyte (CTL) were measured.The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a sustained release system. The drug loading was 6.12% ± 1.36%, the encapsulation efficiency was 81.82% ± 5.32%, and the Zeta potential was 10.34 ± 1.43 mV. The tumor weight in the GC/5-FU group (0.4361 ± 0.1153 g vs 1.5801 ± 0.2821 g, P < 0.001) and the 5-FU (0.7932 ± 0.1283 g vs 1.5801 ± 0.2821 g, P < 0.001) was significantly lower than that in the control group; GC/5-FU treatment can significantly lower the tumor weight (0.4361 ± 0.1153 g vs 0.7932 ± 0.1283 g, P < 0.001), and the longest median survival time was seen in the GC/5-FU group, compared with the control (12 d vs 30 d, P < 0.001), GC (13 d vs 30 d, P < 0.001) and 5-FU groups (17 d vs 30 d, P < 0.001). Flow cytometry revealed that compared with the control, GC/5-FU caused a higher rate of G0-G1 arrest (52.79% ± 13.42% vs 23.92% ± 9.09%, P = 0.014 ) and apoptosis (2.55% ± 1.10% vs 11.13% ± 11.73%, P < 0.001) in hepatic cancer cells. Analysis of the apoptosis pathways showed that GC/5-FU upregulated the expression of p53 at both the protein and the mRNA levels, which in turn lowered the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression; this led to the release of cytochrome C into the cytosol from the mitochondria and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. Upregulation of caspase-3 expression decreased the PARP-1 at both the mRNA and the protein levels, which contributed to apoptosis. 5-FU increased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and decreased the numbers of platelet, white blood cell and lymphocyte and cytotoxic activities of CTL and NK cells, however, there were no such side effects in the GC/5-FU group.GC/5-FU nanoparticles can significantly inhibit the growth of liver cancer in mice via the p53 apoptosis pathway, and relieve the side effects and immunosuppression of 5-FU. HubMed – drug


Current progress in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 14; 18(42): 6060-9
Alexopoulou A, Papatheodoridis GV

Over the last decade, the standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C has been the combination of pegylated-interferon-alfa (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) which results in sustained virological response (SVR) rates of 75%-85% in patients with genotypes 2 or 3 but only of 40%-50% in patients with genotype 1. Currently, there are rapid and continuous developments of numerous new agents against hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are the focus of this review. Boceprevir and telaprevir, two first-generation NS3/4A HCV protease inhibitors, have been recently licensed in several countries around the world to be used in combination with PEG-IFN and RBV for the treatment of genotype 1 patients. Boceprevir or telaprevir based triple regimens, compared with the PEG-IFN/RBV combination, improve the SVR rates by 25%-31% in treatment-naïve genotype 1 patients, by 40%-64% in prior relapsers, by 33%-45% in prior partial responders and by 24%-28% in prior null responders. At the same time, the application of response-guided treatment algorithms according to the on-treatment virological response results in shortening of the total therapy duration to only 24 wk in 45%-55% of treatment-naïve patients. There are, however, several challenges with the use of the new triple combinations in genotype 1 patients, such as the need for immediate results of HCV RNA testing using sensitive quantitative assays, new and more frequent adverse events (anemia and dysgeusia for boceprevir; pruritus, rash and anemia for telaprevir), new drug interactions and increasing difficulties in compliance. Moreover, the SVR rates are still poor in very difficult to treat subgroups of genotype 1 patients, such as null responders with cirrhosis, while there is no benefit for patients who cannot tolerate PEG-IFN/RBV or who are infected with non-1 HCV genotype. Many newer anti-HCV agents of different classes and numerous combinations are currently under evaluation with encouraging results. Preliminary data suggest that the treatment of chronic HCV patients with well tolerated combinations of oral agents without PEG-IFN is feasible and may lead to a universal HCV cure over the next 5-10 years.
HubMed – drug


An immunoassay method for the pharmacokinetics of 5-Fluorouracil in patients with gastric cancer administered adjuvant chemotherapy.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Anticancer Res. 2012 Nov; 32(11): 5111-4
Matsumoto H, Higashida M, Kubota H, Murakami H, Tsutsumi K, Nakashima H, Oka Y, Okumura H, Nakamura M, Hirai T

Conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was compared with a new immunoassay method for measuring plasma (5-FU) concentrations in adjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1 for patients with gastric cancer. TS-1 was administered orally to patients after gastrectomy. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected on the seventh day of treatment. The mean area under the time concentration curve (AUC)(0-8), half-life (t(1/2)), and maximum drug concentration (C(max)) obtained by the two methods were as follows: GC-MS, 847.9 ?g/ml/hr, 2.76 h, and 186.6 ng/ml; and immunoassay, 1311.2 ?g/ml/hr, 3.5 h, and 259.8 ng/ml. Significant correlations were observed for AUC(0-8) (p=0.0001), C(max) (p=0.0007), and changes in the 5-FU concentration in blood over time (p=0.018) for the two methods. Compared with the conventional GC-MS method, the new immunoassay method provides similar results, but is simpler and results can be obtained earlier. This method will be useful for monitoring the 5-FU concentration in serum from patients with gastric cancer receiving TS-1.
HubMed – drug


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