Depression Treatment: Twelve-Month and Lifetime Prevalence and Lifetime Morbid Risk of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in the United States.

Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2012 Aug 1;
Kessler RC, Petukhova M, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Wittchen HU

Estimates of 12-month and lifetime prevalence and of lifetime morbid risk (LMR) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) anxiety and mood disorders are presented based on US epidemiological surveys among people aged 13+. The presentation is designed for use in the upcoming DSM-5 manual to provide more coherent estimates than would otherwise be available. Prevalence estimates are presented for the age groups proposed by DSM-5 workgroups as the most useful to consider for policy planning purposes. The LMR/12-month prevalence estimates ranked by frequency are as follows: major depressive episode: 29.9%/8.6%; specific phobia: 18.4/12.1%; social phobia: 13.0/7.4%; post-traumatic stress disorder: 10.1/3.7%; generalized anxiety disorder: 9.0/2.0%; separation anxiety disorder: 8.7/1.2%; panic disorder: 6.8%/2.4%; bipolar disorder: 4.1/1.8%; agoraphobia: 3.7/1.7%; obsessive-compulsive disorder: 2.7/1.2. Four broad patterns of results are most noteworthy: first, that the most common (lifetime prevalence/morbid risk) lifetime anxiety-mood disorders in the United States are major depression (16.6/29.9%), specific phobia (15.6/18.4%), and social phobia (10.7/13.0%) and the least common are agoraphobia (2.5/3.7%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (2.3/2.7%); second, that the anxiety-mood disorders with the earlier median ages-of-onset are phobias and separation anxiety disorder (ages 15-17) and those with the latest are panic disorder, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (ages 23-30); third, that LMR is considerably higher than lifetime prevalence for most anxiety-mood disorders, although the magnitude of this difference is much higher for disorders with later than earlier ages-of-onset; and fourth, that the ratio of 12-month to lifetime prevalence, roughly characterizing persistence, varies meaningfully in ways consistent with independent evidence about differential persistence of these disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HubMed – depression


[Evaluation of platelet serotonin levels in migraine without aura].

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Agri. 2012 Jul; 24(3): 117-22
Ayalp S, Sahin S, Benli Aksungar F, Kar??da? S

Objectives: The relation between migraine and serotonin levels is not clear. Plasma serotonin levels in migraineurs were investigated in previous studies. However, in the current literature, it is stated that measurement of serotonin level in platelets is more reliable. Methods: Thirty female migraine without aura patients who were diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Headache Society and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D) was applied to all subjects and those scoring 10 and above were not considered. Fasting venous blood samples were taken from subjects in the morning. Platelet rich and poor plasma were prepared. The samples were measured with high performance liquid chromatography and platelet serotonin concentration was calculated. Results: Our results suggest that migraineurs have significantly low platelet serotonin concentration compared to controls. The ratio of family history of migraine in the patient group was clearly higher than in controls. HAM-D scores were significantly higher in migraineurs than in the control group. Although there was a weak correlation between low serotonin levels and attack duration and number, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: Our results suggest the role of heredity and low serotonin levels in the migraine pathogenesis. Even though all subjects enrolled in the study had scores under the depression level, HAM-D scores were higher in migraineurs than controls. This may indicate the presence of subclinical depression associated with low serotonin levels in migraineurs. Extensive studies including both serotonin and other markers during pain and pain-free periods are needed.
HubMed – depression


Neurosurgical Treatments of Depression.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2012 Aug 4;
Temel Y, Lim LW

The neurosurgical treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has entered a new era with more and more patients being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) via surgically implanted intracerebral electrodes. Although the mechanisms of action of DBS are still not fully understood, preclinical studies are being conducted to elucidate how the treatment might work. DBS in its present form can be considered as a relatively new neurosurgical treatment for TRD. However, the use of neurosurgery in the management of depression has a much longer history particularly with ablative procedures but also vagal nerve stimulation. Here, we provide a review of the clinical neurosurgical treatments for TRD, with a main emphasis on DBS. In addition, we discuss relevant preclinical data that are revealing new information about DBS mechanisms.
HubMed – depression



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