Depression Treatment: The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral Maintenance.

The adaptive neuroplasticity hypothesis of behavioral maintenance.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neural Plast. 2012; 2012: 516364
Peterson JC

Physical activity is a seemingly simple and clinically potent method to decrease morbidity and mortality in people with coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonetheless, long-term maintenance of physical activity remains a frustratingly elusive goal for patients and practitioners alike. In this paper, we posit that among older adults with CHD, recidivism after the initiation of physical activity reflects maladaptive neuroplasticity of malleable neural networks, and people will revert back to learned and habitual physical inactivity patterns, particularly in the setting of stress or depression. We hypothesize that behavioral interventions that successfully promote physical activity may also enhance adaptive neuroplasticity and play a key role in the maintenance of physical activity through the development of new neuronal pathways that enhance functional ability in older adults. Conversely, without such adaptive neuroplastic changes, ingrained maladaptive neuroplasticity will prevail and long-term maintenance of physical activity will fail. In this paper we will: (1) describe the enormous potential for neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research.
HubMed – depression


Epidemiology and Management of Depression Following Coronary Heart Disease Diagnosis in Women.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2012 Jun 1; 6(3): 210-218
Ye S, Denton EG, Wasson LT, Davidson KW

Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are both highly prevalent in women. Importantly, depression is associated with significantly elevated morbidity and mortality in women with CHD. There are intriguing speculations about biological mechanisms underlying this association, such as endothelial dysfunction, subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation, and autonomic dysregulation. Social and behavioral mechanisms, such as lack of social support and physical inactivity, have also been shown to play important roles. Unfortunately, many randomized clinical trials of counseling and pharmacologic interventions for depression in patients with CHD have failed to improve cardiovascular outcomes, and in fact have raised the possibility that interventions might be harmful in women. Several recent trials of new treatment strategies, however, have been more effective in improving depressive symptoms and quality of life and deserve further investigation. In this review, we summarize recent findings with regards to the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of depression in women diagnosed with CHD.
HubMed – depression


Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Alafia multiflora Stem Barks in Rodents.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2012; 2012: 912041
Foyet HS, Tsala DE, Bouba AA, Hritcu L

The present study examined the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of Alafia multiflora Stapf (AM) stem barks (150 and 300?mg/kg, 7 days administration) on rats and mice, using experimental paradigms of anxiety and depression. In the open field, the aqueous extract increased significantly the number of center square crossed and the time spent at the center of the field as well as the rearing time, while the grooming time was reduced significantly. In the elevated plus maze, the aqueous extract increased the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. All these effects were also completely reversed by flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors and pindolol a ?-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT 1A/1B receptor antagonist. The time spent in the light compartment, the latency time, and the number of the light-dark transitions increased significantly in the light/dark exploration test after the treatment with AM. The extract was able to reduce significantly the immobility time and increase swimming as well as climbing duration. Taken together, the present work evidenced anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of AM that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptors and an antidepressant effect where noradrenergic mechanisms will probably play a role.
HubMed – depression



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