Depression Treatment: Relations of the Big-Five Personality Dimensions to Autodestructive Behavior in Clinical and Non-Clinical Adolescent Populations.

Relations of the Big-Five personality dimensions to autodestructive behavior in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Croat Med J. 2012 Oct 15; 53(5): 450-60
Kotrla Topic M, Perkovic Kovacevic M, Mlacic B

Aim. To examine the relationship between the Big-Five personality model and autodestructive behavior symptoms, namely Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression in two groups of participants: clinical and non-clinical adolescents. Methods. Two groups of participants, clinical (adolescents with diagnosis of psychiatric disorder based on clinical impression and according to valid diagnostic criteria, N=92) and non-clinical (high-school students, N=87), completed two sets of questionnaires: the Autodestructiveness Scale which provided data on Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), which provided data on the Big -Five personality dimensions. Results. Clinical group showed significantly higher values on the Autodestructiveness scale in general, as well as on Suicidal Depression, Aggressiveness, and Borderline subscales than the non-clinical group. Some of the dimensions of the Big-Five personality model, ie, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness showed significant relationship (hierarchical regression analyses, P values for ? coefficients from 0.000 to 0.021) with Autodestructivness and Suicidal Depression, even after controlling for the sex and group effects or, when analyzing Suicidal Depression, after controlling the effect of other subscales. Conclusion. The results indicate that dimensions of the Big-Five model are important when evaluating adolescent psychiatric patients and adolescents from general population at risk of self-destructive behavior.
HubMed – depression


Automatically extracting sentences from Medline citations to support clinicians’ information needs.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012 Oct 25;
Jonnalagadda SR, Del Fiol G, Medlin R, Weir C, Fiszman M, Mostafa J, Liu H

OBJECTIVE: Online health knowledge resources contain answers to most of the information needs raised by clinicians in the course of care. However, significant barriers limit the use of these resources for decision-making, especially clinicians’ lack of time. In this study we assessed the feasibility of automatically generating knowledge summaries for a particular clinical topic composed of relevant sentences extracted from Medline citations. METHODS: The proposed approach combines information retrieval and semantic information extraction techniques to identify relevant sentences from Medline abstracts. We assessed this approach in two case studies on the treatment alternatives for depression and Alzheimer’s disease. RESULTS: A total of 515 of 564 (91.3%) sentences retrieved in the two case studies were relevant to the topic of interest. About one-third of the relevant sentences described factual knowledge or a study conclusion that can be used for supporting information needs at the point of care. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of relevant sentences is desirable, given that clinicians’ lack of time is one of the main barriers to using knowledge resources at the point of care. Sentence rank was not significantly associated with relevancy, possibly due to most sentences being highly relevant. Sentences located closer to the end of the abstract and sentences with treatment and comparative predications were likely to be conclusive sentences. Our proposed technical approach to helping clinicians meet their information needs is promising. The approach can be extended for other knowledge resources and information need types.
HubMed – depression


Age-related changes in rat intrinsic laryngeal muscles: analysis of muscle fibers, muscle fiber proteins, and subneural apparatuses.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012 Oct 26;
Nishida N, Taguchi A, Motoyoshi K, Hyodo M, Gyo K, Desaki J

We compared age-related changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of aged and young adult rats by determining the number and diameter of muscle fibers, contractile muscle protein (myosin heavy chain isoforms, MHC) composition, and the morphology of the subneural apparatuses. In aged rats, both the numbers and the diameters of muscle fibers decreased in the cricothyroid (CT) muscle. The number of fibers, but not diameter, decreased in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. In the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle, neither the number nor the diameter of fibers changed significantly. Aging was associated with a decrease in type IIB and an increase in type IIA MHC isoform levels in CT muscle, but no such changes were observed in the TA or PCA muscles. Morphological examination of primary synaptic clefts of the subneural apparatus revealed that aging resulted in decreased labyrinthine and increased depression types in only the CT muscle. In the aged group, morphologically immature subneural apparatuses were found infrequently in the CT muscle, indicating continued tissue remodeling. We suggest, therefore, that age-related changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles primarily involve the CT muscle, whereas the structures of the TA and PCA muscles may better resist aging processes and therefore are less vulnerable to functional impairment. This may reflect differences in their roles; the CT muscle controls the tone of the vocal folds, while the TA and PCA muscles play an essential role in vital activities such as respiration and swallowing.
HubMed – depression


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