Depression Treatment: Multilocular Developmental Salivary Gland Defect.

Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Imaging Sci Dent. 2012 Dec; 42(4): 261-3
Kim JS

Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.
HubMed – depression


Condylar bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a CBCT study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Imaging Sci Dent. 2012 Dec; 42(4): 249-53
Nah KS

Diagnosis of osteoarthritis most commonly depends on clinical and radiographic findings. The present study attempted to observe the bony changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients from all age groups.The first-visit clinical records and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 440 TMJs from 220 consecutive TMJ patients were reviewed retrospectively.The most frequent condylar bony change observed was sclerosis (133 joints, 30.2%) followed by surface erosion (129 joints, 29.3%), flattening of the articular surface (112 joints, 25.5%), and deviation in form (58 joints, 13.2%), which included 33 TMJs in a cane-shape, 16 with a lateral or medial pole depression, 6 with posterior condylar surface flattening, and 3 with a bifid-shaped condyle. Fifty-three joints (12.0%) showed hypoplastic condyles but only 1 joint showed hyperplasia. Osteophyte was found in 35 joints (8.0%) and subcortical cyst in 24 joints (5.5%), 5 of which had surface erosion as well. One hundred nineteen joints (27.0%) had only one kind of condylar bony change, 66 joints (15.0%) had two, 52 joints (11.8%) had three, 12 joints (5.0%) had four, and 6 joints (1.4%) had five kinds of condylar bony changes at the same time. Eighty-five (65.9%) of 129 joints with surface erosion had pain recorded at the chief complaint.With more widespread use of CBCT, more specific or detailed guidelines for osteoarthritis are needed.
HubMed – depression


Increased NR2A:NR2B ratio compresses long-term depression range and constrains long-term memory.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 1036
Cui Z, Feng R, Jacobs S, Duan Y, Wang H, Cao X, Tsien JZ

The NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio of the NMDA receptors is widely known to increase in the brain from postnatal development to sexual maturity and to aging, yet its impact on memory function remains speculative. We have generated forebrain-specific NR2A overexpression transgenic mice and show that these mice had normal basic behaviors and short-term memory, but exhibited broad long-term memory deficits as revealed by several behavioral paradigms. Surprisingly, increased NR2A expression did not affect 1-Hz-induced long-term depression (LTD) or 100?Hz-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, but selectively abolished LTD responses in the 3-5?Hz frequency range. Our results demonstrate that the increased NR2A:NR2B ratio is a critical genetic factor in constraining long-term memory in the adult brain. We postulate that LTD-like process underlies post-learning information sculpting, a novel and essential consolidation step in transforming new information into long-term memory.
HubMed – depression



Amazing Los Angeles Depression Treatment Story – TMS Depression Therapy – West Coast TMS Institute patient Holly shares her treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of a clinical depression that was not responding to medication or talk therapy. Watch this video and learn about her TMS experience at leading TMS Los Angeles depression TMS center, West Coast TMS Institute. http


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