Depression Treatment: Hyperinsulinemia in Rats Causes Impairment of Spatial Memory and Learning With Defects in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity by Involvement of Postsynaptic Mechanisms.

Hyperinsulinemia in rats causes impairment of spatial memory and learning with defects in hippocampal synaptic plasticity by involvement of postsynaptic mechanisms.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Exp Brain Res. 2013 Feb 1;
Kamal A, Ramakers GM, Gispen WH, Biessels GJ, Al Ansari A

In addition to its peripheral metabolic functions, insulin acts as a central neuromodulator and affects synaptic plasticity of the hippocampal neurons. In this study, hyperinsulinemic obese zucker rats (OZR) with autosomal recessive mutation of the fa-gene were tested in water maze for learning and memory. The animals were then decapitated and hippocampal slices were prepared for electrophysiological examination. In the water maze test, the OZR performed less efficient than their counter lean control rats (LCR). The OZR showed prolonged latency and increased distance swam to reach a hidden platform. In the electrophysiological experiments, the hippocampal slices were examined for paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), long-term potentiation (LTP), and depression expression. The results showed that while the PPF (thus mainly the presynaptic mechanisms) was not affected, the LTP expression (169.9 ± 16.6 vs. 310.7 ± 2.4 %) and the synaptic plasticity range (69.2 vs. 211.2 %) were both reduced in the OZR animals compared to the LCR. It is concluded that hyperinsulinemia in the OZR resulted in defects in hippocampal synaptic plasticity associated with deterioration in spatial learning and memory functions.
HubMed – depression


Salivary cortisol in women with major depressive disorder under selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013 Jan 31;
Dziurkowska E, Wesolowski M, Dziurkowski M

Depression is one of the widespread diseases whose etiology is still unclear. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can be the cause of this illness which is concomitant with a high level of cortisol. For this reason, the purpose of the study was to estimate the influence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) therapy used in monotherapy and polypragmasy on cortisol level in saliva of depressed women. Cortisol was determined in saliva collected from 40 depressed patients treated with SSRIs. HPLC with UV detection was used for quantification of cortisol after its extraction with dichloromethane. For statistical evaluation of the data, the cluster analysis and principal components analysis were used. Results of the study have shown that the SSRIs treatment reduces the cortisol level in saliva. The therapy with sertraline and polypragmasy had a strong influence on suppressing the cortisol secretion. Besides, the amplitude of changes of the cortisol level during the treatment had an impact on the duration of hospitalization. In conclusion, it can be stet that the process of reduction of the cortisol level is multiphasic and that the combination treatment had a stronger influence on suppressing the cortisol secretion than did antidepressants used in monotherapy.
HubMed – depression


Benzodiazepine Use among Older Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Drugs Aging. 2013 Feb 1;
Vozoris NT, Fischer HD, Wang X, Anderson GM, Bell CM, Gershon AS, Stephenson AL, Gill SS, Rochon PA

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may receive benzodiazepines for a variety of reasons, including as treatment for insomnia, as treatment for depression and anxiety, and to help relieve refractory dyspnoea. However, benzodiazepines have been linked to adverse physiological respiratory outcomes in individuals with COPD. The potential adverse respiratory effects of benzodiazepines in COPD may also be heightened in older adults given their altered pharmacokinetics that increase benzodiazepine half-life. There is minimal information on the scope and nature of benzodiazepine use in the older adult COPD population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of benzodiazepine use among older adults with COPD. METHODS: A validated algorithm was applied to Ontario healthcare administrative data to identify older adults with COPD. Incident oral benzodiazepine receipt between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2009, defined as no benzodiazepines dispensed in the year prior to incident prescription, was examined. Regression techniques were used to identify patient characteristics associated with new benzodiazepine use. Descriptive statistics were performed to describe benzodiazepine use among new users. The analysis was stratified by COPD severity defined by COPD exacerbation frequency (less severe COPD: 0 exacerbations in the year prior; more severe COPD: 1 or more exacerbations in the year prior). RESULTS: Among 111,445 older adults with COPD, 35,311 (31.7 %) received a new benzodiazepine. New benzodiazepine receipt was higher among individuals with more severe COPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 95 % CI 1.38-1.48). Among new benzodiazepine users, there was a relatively high frequency of receipt of long-acting agents (14.6 %), dispensations for greater than 30 days (32.6 %), second dispensations (22.0 % or 30.6 % for occurrence within 120 % or 200 % days of the index prescription, respectively), early refills (11.6 %), and benzodiazepine receipt during COPD exacerbations (9.0 %). Among individuals with more severe COPD, 35.4 % of incident use occurred during a COPD exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: Almost one-third of older individuals with COPD received a new benzodiazepine, and rates were higher among those with more severe COPD. Important safety and quality of care issues are potentially raised by the degree and pattern of benzodiazepine use in this older and respiratory-vulnerable population.
HubMed – depression



Understanding Depression ( Buddhism View ) – I’m STILL Human , Undertstanding Depression with Kindness Venerable Kumara ( Buddhist Monk ) Dr. Phang Cheng Kar ( Psychiatrist ) Ms. Low Mi Yen ( Clinical Psychologist ) Friends & Families who are coping with depression Thanks for sharing the Dhamma and Thanks for listening ..


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