Depression Treatment: Amantadine: A Review of Use in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Amantadine: a review of use in child and adolescent psychiatry.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb; 22(1): 55-60
Hosenbocus S, Chahal R

To review published literature regarding the pharmacology and use of amantadine in child and adolescent psychiatry.A LITERATURE SEARCH OF SEVERAL DATABASES (PUBMED, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCARTICLES, BIOMEDICAL REFERENCE COLLECTION AND ACADEMIS SEARCH COMPLETE) WAS CONDUCTED WITH THE SEARCH TERMS: ‘amantadine’ with limits: English language, Human trials, all child (aged 0-18 years). The search was later expanded to include ‘Adults’ and additional relevant articles were selected from reference lists.The psychotropic effect of amantadine is related to its antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. It decreases the toxic effects of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system which plays an important role in many psychiatric disorders. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of amantadine were identified in children and adolescents. One reported beneficial effects in controlling the symptoms of irritability and hyperactivity in autistic disorder and the other described a significant impact in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two open label studies also reported positive effects in ADHD. A pilot study in children with enuresis reported significant reduction in wetting frequency. Studies in adults, with relevance to children and adolescents, reported effectiveness in resistant depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and in counteracting side effects of some psychotropic medications. RCTs found in traumatic brain injury indicated a neuroprotective effect and effectiveness in controlling agitation and aggression. Amantadine is well tolerated in children and adolescents, with an acceptable side effect profile, and considered safe for long term use.Amantadine shows potential for use as a safe alternative or as an augmenting agent for treating children with neuropsychiatric and various other disorders. Available data for such use, although promising, require further confirmation.
HubMed – depression


Depression in childhood and adolescence.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb; 22(1): 35-40
Maughan B, Collishaw S, Stringaris A

To review recent evidence on child and adolescent depression.Narrative review.Rates of unipolar depression are low before puberty, but rise from the early teens, especially among girls. Concurrent comorbidity with both disruptive and emotional disorders is common, especially among younger children; across age, youth depression may be preceded by both anxiety and disruptive behaviour disorders, and increase risk for alcohol problems. Adolescent depression is associated with a range of adverse later outcomes including suicidality, problems in social functioning and poor physical and mental health. Across development, a family history of depression and exposure to stressful life events are the most robust risk factors for depression. Familial transmission involves both psychosocial and heritable processes; genetic and environmental influences also combine to influence risk. Neurocognitive and neuroendocrine pathways have been established, but contributors to the adolescent rise in risk, and the female preponderance later in development, remain to be clarified. Depressed youth benefit from psychological therapy or antidepressant medication or their combination; however, treatment effects are moderate.Despite considerable progress in understanding developmental trajectories to depression, more needs to be done to identify disease mechanisms that may serve as intervention targets early in the life course.
HubMed – depression


Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety during Adolescence: Determinants and Outcomes. The TRAILS Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb; 22(1): 26-34
Legerstee JS, Verhulst FC, Robbers SC, Ormel J, Oldehinkel AJ, van Oort FV

To identify developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms for adolescent girls and boys. Trajectories were compared with regard to early-adolescent risk factors and psychiatric outcomes during adolescence and in young adulthood.A community sample of 2,230 adolescents was assessed three times across a six-year interval (10-17 years). Symptom scores of anxiety were analyzed with growth mixture models, stratified by gender.Three gender-specific anxiety trajectories were identified for both girls (93.3% low, 4.1% mid-adolescence limited, 2.6% mid-adolescence increasing) and boys (84.4% low, 9.5% mid-adolescence limited, 6.1% early-adolescence decreasing). Child, family and peer factors at baseline predicted group membership of the mid-adolescence limited anxiety trajectory and the early-adolescence decreasing anxiety trajectory in boys. Parental emotional problems predicted the early-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory in girls. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression during adolescence and in early adulthood was higher in both the mid-adolescence limited and the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory.The longitudinal course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence was characterized by three distinct gender-specific developmental trajectories. The most at-risk trajectory in girls was the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory, and in boys the mid-adolescence limited trajectory. None of the environmental (i.e., child, family and peer) factors distinguished the at-risk trajectories from the other trajectories.
HubMed – depression



Tips for curing Diabetes | Swelling in Thyroid | Depression – Diabetics should replace your ordinary flour with mixed roasted flour of barley, gram and wheat to improve digestion and to sort out liver related disorders; drink mixed juice made of 1 bitter-guard and 3 or 4 tomatoes every day; consume buttermilk in lunch and go for brisk walk for 10 -15 minutes; cut lemon into 2 pieces, take out its seeds, apply kathha on its both sides and then, put it outside for entire night. Drink its juice the very next morning. Thyroid patients should take coriander seeds’ boiled water twice a day and gargle with the solution of hot water, alum and salt for getting rid of swelling. The patients suffering from inadequate sleep must wake up and bath early in the morning then, try to absorb sun rays while standing in sun; massage on spinal cord area and drink pomegranate juice. Eat white pumpkin seeds to curb depression.


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