Cyberbullying in Cyprus – Associated Parenting Style and Psychopathology.

Cyberbullying In Cyprus – Associated Parenting Style and Psychopathology.

Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013; 191: 85-89
Floros G, Paradeisioti A, Hadjimarcou M, Mappouras DG, Kalakouta O, Avagianou P, Siomos K

In this paper we present data from a cross-sectional study on cyberbullying experiences and cyberbullying perpetration in the Republic of Cyprus. Data were collected from a representative sample of the adolescent student population of the first and fourth grades of high school. Total sample was 2684 students, 48.5% of them male and 51.5% female. Research material included extended demographics, a detailed questionnaire on Internet activities, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We compared the results on psychometry for those students who did not report being bullied or having bullied others with those who were bullied, those who bullied others and those who were both sufferers and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Those students who reported being both victims and perpetrators tended to show similar or higher dysfunction than those students who only perpetrated cyberbullying. High maternal and paternal protection in combination with low maternal and paternal care (‘affectionless control’ parenting style) was associated with perpetrating cyberbullying, either with or without any experience of oneself being bullied as well. Results support a hypothesis that the perpetration of cyberbullying is associated with inefficient parenting styles. They also point to the existence of significant emotional symptoms for the involved adolescents and also general conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and antisocial tendencies. It is important to note that perpetrators of cyberbullying were in most cases victims themselves at some point in time. HubMed – addiction


Ligand/kappa-opioid receptor interactions: Insights from the X-ray crystal structure.

Eur J Med Chem. 2013 May 30; 66C: 114-121
Martinez-Mayorga K, Byler KG, Yongye AB, Giulianotti MA, Dooley CT, Houghten RA

During the past five years, the three-dimensional structures of 14 different G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been resolved by X-ray crystallography. The most recently published structures, those of the opioid receptors (ORs), are remarkably important in pain modulation, drug addiction, and mood disorders. These structures, confirmed previously proposed key interactions conferring potency and antagonistic properties, including the well-known interaction with Asp138, conserved in all aminergic GPCRs. In addition, crystallization of the opioid receptors highlighted the potential function of the ECL2 and ICL2 loops. We have previously reported a set of potent and selective kappa opioid receptor peptide agonists, of which ff(D-nle)r-NH2 is among the most potent and selective ones. These peptides were identified from the deconvolution of a 6,250,000 tetrapeptide combinatorial library. A derivative of this set is currently the subject of a phase 2 clinical trial in the United States. In this work, we describe comparative molecular modeling studies of kappa-OR peptide agonists with the co-crystallized antagonist, JDTic, and also report structure-activity relationships of 23 tetrapeptides. The overall binding and contact interactions are sound and interactions known to favor selectivity and potency were observed. Additional modeling studies will reveal conformational changes that the kappa-OR undergoes upon binding to these peptide agonists. HubMed – addiction


Classification and definition of misuse, abuse, and related events in clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review and recommendations.

Pain. 2013 Jun 20;
Smith SM, Dart RC, Katz NP, Paillard F, Adams EH, Comer SD, Degroot A, Edwards RR, David Haddox J, Jaffe JH, Jones CM, Kleber HD, Kopecky EA, Markman JD, Montoya ID, O’Brien C, Roland CL, Stanton M, Strain EC, Vorsanger G, Wasan AD, Weiss RD, Turk DC, Dworkin RH

As the non-therapeutic use of prescription medications escalates, serious associated consequences have also increased, making it essential to estimate misuse, abuse, and related events (MAREs) in the development and post-marketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring of prescription drugs accurately. However, classifications and definitions to describe prescription drug MAREs differ depending on the purpose of the classification system, may apply to single events or ongoing patterns of inappropriate use, and are not standardized or systematically employed, thereby complicating the ability to assess MARE occurrence adequately. In a systematic review of existing prescription drug MARE terminology and definitions from consensus efforts, review articles, and major institutions and agencies, MARE terms were often defined inconsistently or idiosyncratically, or had definitions that overlapped with other MARE terms. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trials, Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership convened an expert panel to develop mutually exclusive and exhaustive consensus classifications and definitions of MAREs occurring in clinical trials of analgesic medications to increase accuracy and consistency in characterizing their occurrence and prevalence in clinical trials. The proposed ACTTION classifications and definitions are designed as a first step in a system to adjudicate MAREs that occur in analgesic clinical trials and post-marketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring, which can be used in conjunction with other methods of assessing a treatment’s abuse potential. HubMed – addiction


Rats are the smart choice: Rationale for a renewed focus on rats in behavioral genetics.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jun 18;
Parker CC, Chen H, Flagel SB, Geurts AM, Richards JB, Robinson TE, Solberg Woods LC, Palmer AA

Due in part to their rich behavioral repertoire rats have been widely used in behavioral studies of drug abuse-related traits for decades. However, the mouse became the model of choice for researchers exploring the genetic underpinnings of addiction after the first mouse study was published demonstrating the capability of engineering the mouse genome through embryonic stem cell technology. The sequencing of the mouse genome and more recent re-sequencing of numerous inbred mouse strains have further cemented the status of mice as the premier mammalian organism for genetic studies. As a result, many of the behavioral paradigms initially developed and optimized for rats have been adapted to mice. However, numerous complex and interesting drug abuse-related behaviors that can be studied in rats are very difficult or impossible to adapt for use in mice, impeding the genetic dissection of those traits. Now, technological advances have removed many of the historical limitations of genetic studies in rats. For instance, the rat genome has been sequenced and many inbred rat strains are now being re-sequenced and outbred rat stocks are being used to fine-map QTLs. In addition, it is now possible to create “knockout” rats using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and related techniques. Thus, rats can now be used to perform quantitative genetic studies of sophisticated behaviors that have been difficult or impossible to study in mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue’. HubMed – addiction