Current Challenges to the United States’ AIDS Drug Assistance Program and Possible Implications of the Affordable Care Act.

Current challenges to the United states’ AIDS drug assistance program and possible implications of the affordable care act.

AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 350169
McManus KA, Engelhard CL, Dillingham R

AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990, are the “payer of last resort” for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS. ADAPs face declining funding from the federal government. State funding of ADAP is discretionary, but some states increased their contributions to meet the gap in funding. The demand for ADAP support is increasing as people living with HIV are living longer; the antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have been changed to recommend initiation of treatment for all; the United States is increasing HIV testing goals; and the recession continues. In the setting of increased demand and limited funding, ADAPs are employing cost containment measures. Since 2010, emergency federal funds have bailed out ADAP, but these are not sustainable. In the coming years, providers and policy makers associated with HIV care will need to navigate the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Lessons learned from the challenges associated with providing sustainable access to ART for vulnerable populations through ADAP should inform upcoming decisions about how to ensure delivery of ART during and after the implementation of the ACA. HubMed – drug


Transplantation of bone marrow derived monocytes: a novel approach for augmentation of arteriogenesis in a murine model of femoral artery ligation.

Am J Transl Res. 2013; 5(2): 155-69
Francke A, Weinert S, Strasser RH, Braun-Dullaeus RC, Herold J

Therapeutic augmentation of collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is of tremendous clinical interest. Since monocytes home to areas of arteriogenesis and create a local arteriogeneic milieu by secreting a wide range of growth factors, we followed the idea of utilizing these cells for augmentation of collateral growth. For that purpose, we adoptively transferred both syngeneic (same strain) and allogeneic (different strain) bone marrow derived monocytes (BMDMs) into balb/c mice 24 h after femoral artery ligation. Restoration of hind-limb perfusion was determined by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and histological workup. While syngeneic cell transplantation did not augment arteriogenesis in comparison to non-transplanted animals (PI = 0.56 ± 0.06 vs. 0.48 ± 0.09, respectively, ns), allogeneic monocytes massively promoted the collateralization (PI = 0.85 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Homed monocytes were visualized near growing collateral vessels by staining the cells with the lipophil fluorochrome DiI prior to transplantation. To analyze whether the effect of allogeneic BMDM transplantations is due to local inflammation triggered by a host-versus-graft reaction, transplant recipients were pre-treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A, which completely prevented the effect of allogeineic monocyte transplantation (PI = 0.45 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). Here, we have demonstrated murine allogeneic monocytes to be an attractive way to trigger local inflammatory responses near growing collateral vessels and stimulate their adaption, overcoming the endogenous restriction of collateral vessel growth. HubMed – drug


An intravenous (i.v.) route-compatible formulation of FL118, a survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, and cIAP2 selective inhibitor, improves FL118 antitumor efficacy and therapeutic index (TI).

Am J Transl Res. 2013; 5(2): 139-54
Ling X, Li F

We recently reported a novel anticancer small molecule, designated FL118, which was discovered via high throughput screening (HTS), and followed by hit-lead in vitro and in vivo analysis. FL118 selectively inhibits the expression of four major cancer survival-associated gene products (survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, and cIAP2) and shows promising antitumor activity in animal models of human cancers when administered using a weekly x 4 schedule (Ling et al., PLOS ONE. 2012, 7: e45571). Here, we compared the antitumor efficacy and therapeutic index (TI) of FL118 in a newly developed Tween 80-free formulation that can be delivered intravenously (i.v.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) against the previous Tween 80-containing formulation that can only be delivered via an i.p. route. We found that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for FL118 in the i.v. formulation increases 3-7 fold in comparison with the MTD of FL118 in the i.p. formulation. FL118 in the i.v. recipe was able to eliminate human tumor xenografts in all three major schedules tested (daily x 5, q2 x 5 and weekly x 5). In contrast, FL118 was able to eliminate human tumor xenografts in the i.p. formulation only with the weekly x 4 schedule previously reported. The TI of FL118 in the i.v. formulation reached 5-6 in the most effective schedule, while the TI of FL118 in the i.p. formulation was only 1.3 – 2. These findings overcome several clinical challenges including FL118 formulation to realize clinically compatible drug administration routes, and expanding effective treatment schedules. The striking improvement of the TI makes FL118 a much safer drug for further development toward clinical trials. HubMed – drug