Cortical Sensory Plasticity in a Model of Migraine With Aura.

Cortical sensory plasticity in a model of migraine with aura.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 31; 32(44): 15252-61
Theriot JJ, Toga AW, Prakash N, Ju YS, Brennan KC

The migraine attack is characterized by alterations in sensory perception, such as photophobia or allodynia, which have in common an uncomfortable amplification of the percept. It is not known how these changes arise. We evaluated the ability of cortical spreading depression (CSD), the proposed mechanism of the migraine aura, to shape the cortical activity that underlies sensory perception. We measured forepaw- and hindpaw-evoked sensory responses in rat, before and after CSD, using multielectrode array recordings and two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. CSD significantly altered cortical sensory processing on a timescale compatible with the duration of the migraine attack. Both electrophysiological and hemodynamic maps had a reduced surface area (were sharpened) after CSD. Electrophysiological responses were potentiated at the receptive field center but suppressed in surround regions. Finally, the normal adaptation of sensory-evoked responses was attenuated at the receptive field center. In summary, we show that CSD induces changes in the evoked cortical response that are consistent with known mechanisms of cortical plasticity. These mechanisms provide a novel neurobiological substrate to explain the sensory alterations of the migraine attack.
HubMed – depression

 

The Effect of Ethyl Alcohol on the Function of Spatial Memory in Rats.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Arzneimittelforschung. 2012 Oct 31;
Ratajczak P, Kus K, Jarmuszkiewicz Z, Wo?niak A, Nowakowska E

Alcoholism is a mental disease in the course of which depression, anxiety, and cognitive function deficits may appear, and these symptoms can be aggravated by comorbid schizophrenia.The aim of this study was to find whether spatial memory (Morris Water Maze) function impairment is found in prenatally stressed rats (PSG) (prenatal stress paradigm – animal model of schizophrenia) and whether aripiprazole ARI and olanzapine OLA modify these functions. It was also important to study the effect of ethyl alcohol administered to rats.Behavioural tests showed that ARI and OLA improved spatial memory in the non-stressed control group (NSCG) and in the PSG. Moreover, spatial memory in the non-stressed alcohol group (NSAG) improved significantly compared to the NSCG, while in the prenatally stressed alcohol group (PSAG) spatial memory improved both in comparison to the NSCG and PSG. No statistically significant differences were found by comparing groups which received ethyl alcohol (NSAG, PSAG).
HubMed – depression

 

Posttraumatic stress disorder:paradigm for new psychiatry.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychiatr Danub. 2012 Oct; 24 Suppl 3: 373-6
Babi? D

Although the description of the PTSD clinical picture dates from history, our professional community has known for about two decades. PTSD is clearly defined in the 10th International Classification of Diseases, World Health Organization and IV Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Together with panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific and social phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder is one of the large groups of anxiety disorders. A superficial approach, we could conclude that in the relation with PTSD is all clear. It was also found that PTSD is often associated with depression, anxiety disorders, and excessive drinking, substance abuse, and personality disorder, dissociative and other disorders. It is true that our knowledge of PTSD from year to year is larger and larger. However, regarding PTSD, there are many uncertainties, doubts and controversies. Is PTSD a disorder, illness, rent or a passing phase in the development of various diseases? In recent years, there are many studies that are trying to illuminate different aspects of PTSD. Numerous clinical, neurobiological, psycho physiological and MR volumetric studies indicate many uncertainties related to PTSD. About psychotic PTSD is more frequently discussed and written. Whether PTSD is or its symptoms or complications during periods of decompensation may have the character of the psychosis and the psychosis within PTSD or a co-morbid diagnosis? It is certain that about PTSD there are many uncertainties and doubts, that the investigation should continue and that PTSD is a paradigm for new psychiatry.
HubMed – depression

 

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