Corrected QT Interval Prolongation During Severe Hypoglycemia Without Hypokalemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Corrected QT Interval Prolongation during Severe Hypoglycemia without Hypokalemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Metab J. 2013 Jun; 37(3): 190-5
Beom JW, Kim JM, Chung EJ, Kim JY, Ko SY, Na SD, Kim CH, Park G, Kang MY

To evaluate the effects of severe hypoglycemia without hypokalemia on the electrocardiogram in patients with type 2 diabetes in real-life conditions.Electrocardiograms of adult type 2 diabetic patients during the episodes of severe hypoglycemia and the recovered stage were obtained and analysed between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Patients who maintained the normal serum sodium and potassium levels during the episodes of severe hypoglycemia were only selected as the subjects of this study. Severe hypoglycemia was defined, in this study, as the condition requiring active medical assistance such as administering carbohydrate when serum glucose level was less than 60 mg/dL.Nine type 2 diabetes patients (seven men, two women) were included in the study. The mean subject age was 73.2±7.7 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c level was 6.07%±1.19%. The median duration of diabetes was 10 years (range, 3.5 to 30 years). Corrected QT (QTc) intervals were significantly increased during the episodes of severe hypoglycemia compared to the recovered stage (447.6±18.2 ms vs. 417.2±30.6 ms; P<0.05). However, the morphology and the amplitude of the T waves were not changed and ST-segment elevation and/or depression were not found during the episodes of severe hypoglycemia.In this study, QTc interval prolongation during the episodes of severe hypoglycemia was observed without hypokalemia. Therefore, the distinct alterations in cardiac repolarization during the episodes of severe hypoglycemia may not be associated with hypokalemia. HubMed – depression


The melanocyte photosensory system in the human skin.

Springerplus. 2013 Dec; 2(1): 158
Iyengar B

The pigment cells form the largest population of neural crest cells to migrate into the epidermis and hair follicle along each dermatomic area from the neural folds. The melanopsin system responsible for photoentrainment, was isolated from the photosensitive dermal melanophores of frogs Xenopus laevis responding to light. Melanocytes form a photoresponsive network which reads the environmental seasonal variations in the light cycles in the same manner. The present work was undertaken to study the organization of this system by: I. Experimental assessment of photoresponse and II. Evidence of an organized system of photoreception in the skin. Melanocytes, in whole skin organ cultures and epidermal strips, from margin of vitiligo in G2 phase show prominent dendricity, and express pigment, biogenic amines and hormones on UV exposure. The photoresponse depends on the photosensitive enzymes NAT/HIOMT and dopaoxidase. Melanocytes interact with adjacent keratinocytes, dermal capillaries, and nerve endings. The melanocyte network reads the diurnal and seasonal photophase by the melatonin/serotonin switch like the pineal. Sleep disorders and winter depression are corrected by phototherapy utilising this mechanism. Melanocytes showing photoactivity, aplasia, hypoplasia and hyperplasia, and interactive keratinocytes occupy the trigeminal, brachial and lumbosacral dermatomes, zones of high embryonic induction, forming an ectodermal placodal system. Melanin units and hair follicles serve as photoreceptors. Migration of active melanocytes to defined areas is evident in pigment patterns in guinea pigs. This study identifies defined photoreceptor melanocyte/epidermal domains which read the seasonal photophase and control the sleep waking cycle in response to the environmental light. I. Whole skin organ cultures, and epidermal strips from margin of vitiligo in G2 phase are exposed to UV and IR to study sequential and dose response of marginal melanocytes, using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry to assess pigment, biogenic amines and hormones on UV exposure. II. Dermatomic Distributions: Detailed maps of melanocyte photoresponse in 356 biopsies, lesions in 297 vitiligo, 100 melanosis, 165 melanomas 142 leprosy and 442 basal cell/keratinocytes lesions were assessed for patterns of dermatomic distribution. Embryonal melanocyte migration along dermatomes was assessed in 285 guinea pigs from an inbred colony having black, brown and white patches. HubMed – depression


Depressive symptoms of midlife Latinas: effect of immigration and sociodemographic factors.

Int J Womens Health. 2013; 5: 301-8
Sternberg RM, Lee KA

Immigrant Latinas may have different cultural attitudes toward menopause and aging, and may experience higher levels of distress associated with adaptation to their new environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to describe the frequency of depressive symptoms experienced by premenopausal Latinas (40-50 years of age) living in the United States and compare Latinas born in the US with immigrant Latinas on stress and sociodemographic factors that influence depressive symptom experience. Analysis was conducted on a subsample of 94 self-identified Latinas who participated in a longitudinal study and completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale at enrollment and 6 months. Immigrant Latinas had a significantly higher CES-D (14.4 ± 11.1) than US-born Latinas (10.0 ± 7.9) and the difference remained at 6 months. There was no difference in age, body mass index (BMI), self-report of general health, or perceived stress. Higher BMI, work-related stress, and insufficient income for essential daily needs were associated with depressive symptom scores in immigrant Latinas. High BMI and less education were associated with depressive symptom scores in the US-born Latinas. HubMed – depression



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