Cognitive Reactivity, Implicit Associations, and the Incidence of Depression: A Two-Year Prospective Study.

Cognitive reactivity, implicit associations, and the incidence of depression: a two-year prospective study.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e70245
Kruijt AW, Antypa N, Booij L, de Jong PJ, Glashouwer K, Penninx BW, Van der Does W

Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is a vulnerability marker of depression. Implicit self-depressed associations are related to depression status and reduced remission probability. It is unknown whether these cognitive vulnerabilities precede the first onset of depression.To test the predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the incidence of depressive disorders.Prospective cohort study of 834 never-depressed individuals, followed over a two-year period. The predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the onset of depressive disorders was assessed using binomial logistic regression. The multivariate model corrected for baseline levels of subclinical depressive symptoms, neuroticism, for the presence of a history of anxiety disorders, for family history of depressive or anxiety disorders, and for the incidence of negative life events.As single predictors, both cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations were significantly associated with depression incidence. In the multivariate model, cognitive reactivity was significantly associated with depression incidence, together with baseline depressive symptoms and the number of negative life events, whereas implicit self-depressed associations were not.Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is associated with the incidence of depressive disorders, also when various other depression-related variables are controlled for. Implicit self-depressed associations predicted depression incidence in a bivariate test, but not when controlling for other predictors. HubMed – depression

A Clinical Tool for Reducing Central Nervous System Depression among Neonates Exposed to Codeine through Breast Milk.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e70073
Kelly LE, Chaudhry SA, Rieder MJ, ‘t Jong G, Moretti ME, Lausman A, Ross C, Berger H, Carleton B, Hayden MR, Madadi P, Koren G

Neonates are commonly exposed to maternal codeine through breast milk. Central Nervous System (CNS) depression has been reported in up to 24% of nurslings following codeine exposure. In 2009, we developed guidelines to improve the safety of codeine use during breastfeeding based on previously established pharmacogenetic and clinical risk factors. The primary objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of these guidelines in ensuring neonatal safety.Women taking codeine for pain following caesarean section were given safety guidelines, including advice to use the lowest codeine dose for no longer than four days and to switch to a non-opioid when possible. Mothers provided a saliva sample for analysis of genes involved in opioid disposition, metabolism and response. A total of 238 consenting women participated. Neonatal sedation was reported in 2.1% (5/238) of breastfeeding women taking codeine according to our safety guidelines. This rate was eight fold lower than that reported in previous prospective studies. Women reporting sedated infants were taking codeine for a significantly longer period of time (4.80±2.59 days vs. 2.52±1.58 days, p?=?0.0018). While following the codeine safety guidelines, mothers were less likely to supplement with formula, reported lower rates of sedation in themselves and breastfed more frequently throughout the day when compared to previously reported rates. Genotyping analysis of cytochrome p450 2D6 (CYP2D6), uridine-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7, p-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and catechol-o-demethyltransferase (COMT) did not predict codeine response in breastfeeding mother/infant pairs when following the safety guidelines.The only cases of CNS depression occurred when the length of codeine use exceeded the guideline recommendations. Neonatal safety of codeine can be improved using evidence-based guidelines, even in those deemed by genetics to be at high risk for toxicity. HubMed – depression

Candidate Transcriptomic Sources of Inbreeding Depression in Drosophila melanogaster.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e70067
Garcia C, Avila V, Quesada H, Caballero A

The genomic causes of inbreeding depression are poorly known. Several studies have found widespread transcriptomic alterations in inbred organisms, but it remains unclear which of these alterations are causes of the depression and which are mere responses to the ensuing physiological stress induced by increased homozygosity due to inbreeding. Attempting to differentiate causes from responses, we made a c-DNA microarray analysis of inbreeding depression in Drosophila melanogaster. The rationale of the experiment was that, while depression is a general phenomenon involving reductions in fitness in different inbred lines, its first genetic causes would be different for each inbred line, as they are expected to be caused by the fixation of rare deleterious genes. We took four sets of inbred sublines, each set descending from a different founding pair obtained from a large outbred stock, and compared the expression of the three most depressed sublines and the three least depressed sublines from each set. Many changes in expression were common to all sets, but fourteen genes, grouped in four expression clusters, showed strong set-specific changes, and were therefore possible candidates to be sources of the inbreeding depression observed. HubMed – depression

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