Addiction: Smoking and Craving a Drink?

Addiction: Smoking and craving a drink?

Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013 Aug 7;
Flight MH

HubMed – addiction

A Bibliometric Analysis of European versus USA Research in the Field of Addiction. Research on Alcohol, Narcotics, Prescription Drug Abuse, Tobacco and Steroids 2001-2011.

Eur Addict Res. 2013 Aug 1; 20(1): 16-22
Bramness JG, Henriksen B, Person O, Mann K

Background: To compare the publication and citation rate within the areas of drug abuse and dependence research in Europe with that in the USA. Methods: This is a bibliometric study using the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge as data source, 40 key words were used as search terms, but certain scientific publications not concerning the issue were excluded. Scientific publications from Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the USA were studied. The number of publications in each country and in each year in addition to the citation indices for these publications was retrieved. Results: Approximately two thirds of the publications came from the USA. Both in absolute and relative figures, Europe lagged behind. The trend over the last decade was a greater gap between the amount of research performed in Europe versus the USA. There were thematic differences. Smaller European countries had a greater relative publication rate. The citations were relatively evenly distributed. Conclusions: It has been claimed that 85% of the world’s research within the field of drug abuse and dependence is carried out in the USA. This study challenges this figure, but European research within this field is lagging behind. HubMed – addiction

Making Sense of Differing Overdose Mortality: Contributions to Improved Understanding of European Patterns.

Eur Addict Res. 2013 Aug 1; 20(1): 8-15
Waal H, Gossop M

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, EMCDDA, publishes statistics for overdose deaths giving a European mean number, and ranking nations in a national ‘league table’ for overdose deaths. The interpretation of differing national levels of mortality is more problematic and more complex than is usually recognised. Different systems are used to compile mortality data and this causes problems for cross-national comparisons. Addiction behaviour can only be properly understood within its specific social and environmental ecology. Risk factors for overdose, such as the type of drug consumed, and the route of administration, are known to differ across countries. This paper describes problems associated with ranking and suggests how mortality data might be used in high-level countries aiming at reduction in the number of overdose deaths. HubMed – addiction

Heightened D3 Dopamine Receptor Levels in Cocaine Dependence and Contributions to the Addiction Behavioural Phenotype: A Positron Emission Tomography Study with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Aug 7;
Payer DE, Behzadi A, Kish SJ, Houle S, Wilson AA, Rusjan PM, Tong J, Selby P, George TP, McCluskey T, Boileau I

The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a novel avenue for addiction treatment. The objective here was to evaluate the status and behavioural relevance of the D3 receptor system in CD, using the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO. Fifteen CD subjects (many actively using, but all abstinent 7-240 days on scan day) and 15 matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed two PET scans: One with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO to assess D3 receptor binding (BPND; calculated regionally using the simplified reference tissue model), and for comparison, a second scan with [(11)C]raclopride to assess D2/3 binding. CD subjects also completed a behavioural battery to characterize the addiction behavioural phenotype. CD subjects showed higher [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO BPND than HC in the substantia nigra, which correlated with behavioural impulsiveness and risky decision-making. In contrast, [(11)C]raclopride BPND was lower across the striatum in CD, consistent with previous literature in ?2 week abstinence. The data suggest that in contrast to a D2 deficiency, CD individuals may have heightened D3 receptor levels, which could contribute to addiction-relevant traits. D3 upregulation is emerging as a biomarker in preclinical models of addiction, and human PET studies of this receptor system can help guide novel pharmacological strategies for treatment.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 7 August 2013. doi:10.1038/npp.2013.192. HubMed – addiction

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