Chlamydophila Pneumoniae Infection and Cardiovascular Disease.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and cardiovascular disease.

N Am J Med Sci. 2013 Mar; 5(3): 169-81
Joshi R, Khandelwal B, Joshi D, Gupta OP

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial vascular inflammatory process; however, the inciting cause for inflammation remains unclear. Two decades ago, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (formerly Chlamydia pneumoniae) infection was proposed as a putative etiologic agent. We performed a PubMed search using the keywords Chlamydia and atherosclerosis in a Boolean query to identify published studies on C. pneumoniae and its role in atherogenesis, and to understand research interest in this topic. We found 1,652 published articles on this topic between 1991 and 2011. We analyzed relevant published studies and found various serological, molecular, and animal modeling studies in the early period. Encouraged by positive results from these studies, more than a dozen antibiotic clinical-trials were subsequently conducted, which did not find clinical benefits of anti-Chlamydophila drug therapy. While many researchers believe that the organism is still important, negative clinical trials had a similar impact on overall research interest. With many novel mechanisms identified for atherogenesis, there is a need for newer paradigms in Chlamydophila-atherosclerosis research. HubMed – drug


Emerging microfluidic tools for functional cellular immunophenotyping: a new potential paradigm for immune status characterization.

Front Oncol. 2013; 3: 98
Chen W, Huang NT, Li X, Yu ZT, Kurabayashi K, Fu J

Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of patient immune status challenging in the clinical setting. Recent advances in microfluidics have demonstrated promising applications of the technology for immune monitoring with minimum sample requirements and rapid functional immunophenotyping capability. This review will highlight recent developments of microfluidic platforms that can perform rapid and accurate cellular functional assays on patient immune cells. We will also discuss the future potential of integrated microfluidics to perform rapid, accurate, and sensitive cellular functional assays at a single-cell resolution on different types or subpopulations of immune cells, to provide an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of immune cell functionalities. We envision that such microfluidic immunophenotyping tools will allow for comprehensive and systems-level immunomonitoring, unlocking the potential to transform experimental clinical immunology into an information-rich science. HubMed – drug


Antifungal indole and pyrrolidine-2,4-Dione derivative peptidomimetic lead design based on in silico study of bioactive Peptide families.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 2013 Jan; 5(1): 42-53
Moradi S, Azerang P, Khalaj V, Sardari S

The rise of opportunistic fungal infections highlights the need for development of new antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) and Antifungal Peptides (AFPs) are among the agents with minimal resistance being developed against them, therefore they can be used as structural templates for design of new antimicrobial agents.In the present study four antifungal peptidomimetic structures named C1 to C4 were designed based on plant defensin of Pisum sativum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for these structures were determined against Aspergillus niger N402, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTCC 5052.C1 and C2 showed more potent antifungal activity against these fungal strains compared to C3 and C4. The structure C2 demonstrated a potent antifungal activity among them and could be used as a template for future study on antifungal peptidomemetics design. Sequences alignments led to identifying antifungal decapeptide (KTCENLADTY) named KTC-Y, which its MIC was determined on fungal protoplast showing 25 (µg/ml) against Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.The present approach to reach the antifungal molecules seems to be a powerful approach in design of bioactive agents based on AMP mimetic identification. HubMed – drug


Multicellular tumor spheroids for evaluation of cytotoxicity and tumor growth inhibitory effects of nanomedicines in vitro: a comparison of docetaxel-loaded block copolymer micelles and taxotere®.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e62630
Mikhail AS, Eetezadi S, Allen C

While 3-D tissue models have received increasing attention over the past several decades in the development of traditional anti-cancer therapies, their potential application for the evaluation of advanced drug delivery systems such as nanomedicines has been largely overlooked. In particular, new insight into drug resistance associated with the 3-D tumor microenvironment has called into question the validity of 2-D models for prediction of in vivo anti-tumor activity. In this work, a series of complementary assays was established for evaluating the in vitro efficacy of docetaxel (DTX) -loaded block copolymer micelles (BCM+DTX) and Taxotere® in 3-D multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) cultures. Spheroids were found to be significantly more resistant to treatment than monolayer cultures in a cell line dependent manner. Limitations in treatment efficacy were attributed to mechanisms of resistance associated with properties of the spheroid microenvironment. DTX-loaded micelles demonstrated greater therapeutic effect in both monolayer and spheroid cultures in comparison to Taxotere®. Overall, this work demonstrates the use of spheroids as a viable platform for the evaluation of nanomedicines in conditions which more closely reflect the in vivo tumor microenvironment relative to traditional monolayer cultures. By adaptation of traditional cell-based assays, spheroids have the potential to serve as intermediaries between traditional in vitro and in vivo models for high-throughput assessment of therapeutic candidates. HubMed – drug