Cannabinoid and Opioid Interactions: Implications for Opiate Dependence and Withdrawal.

Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal.

Neuroscience. 2013 Apr 24;
Scavone JL, Sterling RC, Van Bockstaele EJ

Withdrawal from opiates, such as heroin or oral narcotics, is characterized by a host of aversive physical and emotional symptoms. High rates of relapse and limited treatment success rates for opiate addiction have prompted a search for new approaches. For many opiate addicts, achieving abstinence may be further complicated by poly-drug use and co-morbid mental disorders. Research over the past decade has shed light on the influence of endocannabinoids on the opioid system. Evidence from both animal and clinical studies point towards an interaction between these two systems, and suggest that targeting the endocannabinoid system may provide novel interventions for managing opiate dependence and withdrawal. This review will summarize the literature surrounding the molecular effects of cannabinoids and opioids system on the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, a key circuit implicated in the negative sequelae of opiate addiction. A consideration of the trends and effects of marijuana use in those seeking treatment to abstain from opiates in the clinical setting will also be presented. In summary, the present review details how cannabinoid-opioid interactions may inform novel interventions in management of opiate dependence and withdrawal. HubMed – addiction


Recent Advances In Quantitative Neuroproteomics.

Methods. 2013 Apr 24;
Craft GE, Chen A, Nairn AC

The field of proteomics is undergoing rapid development in a number of different areas including improvements in mass spectrometric platforms, peptide identification algorithms and bioinformatics. In particular, new and/or improved approaches have established robust methods that not only allow for in-depth and accurate peptide and protein identification and modification, but also allow for sensitive measurement of relative or absolute quantitation. These methods are beginning to be applied to the area of neuroproteomics, but the central nervous system poses many specific challenges in terms of quantitative proteomics, given the large number of different neuronal cell types that are intermixed and that exhibit distinct patterns of gene and protein expression. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in quantitative neuroproteomics, with a focus on work published over the last five years that applies emerging methods to normal brain function as well as to various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and drug addiction as well as of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. While older methods such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis continued to be used, a variety of more in-depth MS-based approaches including both label (ICAT, iTRAQ, TMT, SILAC, SILAM), label-free (label-free, MRM, SWATH) and absolute quantification methods, are rapidly being applied to neurobiological investigations of normal and diseased brain tissue as well as of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While the biological implications of many of these studies remain to be clearly established, that there is a clear need for standardization of experimental design and data analysis, and that the analysis of protein changes in specific neuronal cell types in the central nervous system remains a serious challenge, it appears that the quality and depth of the more recent quantitative proteomics studies is beginning to shed light on a number of aspects of neuroscience that relates to normal brain function as well as of the changes in protein expression and regulation that occurs in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. HubMed – addiction


Region-specific expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor splice variants in morphine conditioned place preference in mice.

Brain Res. 2013 Apr 25;
Meng M, Zhao X, Dang Y, Ma J, Li L, Gu S

It is well established that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in brain plasticity-related processes, such as learning, memory and drug addiction. However, changes in expression of BDNF splice variants after acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of cue-elicited morphine seeking behavior have not yet been investigated. Real-time PCR was used to assess BDNF splice variants (I, II, IV and VI) in various brain regions during acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of morphine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. Repeated morphine injections (10mg/kg, i.p.) increased expression of BDNF splice variants II, IV and VI in the hippocampus, caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Levels of BDNF splice variants decreased after extinction training and continued to decrease during reinstatement induced by a morphine priming injection (10mg/kg, i.p.). However, after reinstatement induced by exposure to 6min of forced swimming (FS), expression of BDNF splice variants II, IV and VI was increased in the hippocampus, CPu, NAcc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). After reinstatement induced by 40min of restraint, expression of BDNF splice variants was increased in PFC. These results show that exposure to either morphine or acute stress can induce reinstatement of drug-seeking, but expression of BDNF splice variants is differentially affected by chronic morphine and acute stress. Furthermore, BDNF splice variants II, IV and VI may play a role in learning and memory for morphine addiction in the hippocampus, CPu and NAcc. HubMed – addiction