CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+ Phenotypes Fail to Reliably Identify Cell Populations With Cancer Stem Cell Functional Features in Established Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+ Phenotypes Fail to Reliably Identify Cell Populations with Cancer Stem Cell Functional Features in Established Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 Aug; 1(8): 592-603
Muraro MG, Mele V, Däster S, Han J, Heberer M, Cesare Spagnoli G, Iezzi G

Increasing evidence that cancers originate from small populations of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies and regenerating the original tumor, urges the development of novel CSC-targeted treatments. Screening of new anticancer compounds is conventionally conducted on established tumor cell lines, providing sufficient material for high-throughput studies. Whether tumor cell lines might comprise CSC populations resembling those of primary tumors, however, remains highly debated. We have analyzed the expression of defined phenotypic profiles, including CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+, reported as CSC-specific in human primary colorectal cancer (CRC), on a panel of 10 established CRC cell lines and evaluated their correlation with CSC properties. None of the putative CSC phenotypes consistently correlated with stem cell-like features, including spheroid formation ability, clonogenicity, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, and side population phenotype. Importantly, CRC cells expressing putative CSC markers did not exhibit increased survival when treated with chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro or display higher tumorigenicity in vivo. Thus, the expression of CD133 or the coexpression of CD166/CD44 or CD24/CD44 did not appear to reliably identify CSC populations in established CRC cell lines. Our findings question the suitability of cell lines for the screening of CSC-specific therapies and underline the urgency of developing novel platforms for anticancer drug discovery.
HubMed – drug


Perivascular stem cells: a prospectively purified mesenchymal stem cell population for bone tissue engineering.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 Jun; 1(6): 510-9
James AW, Zara JN, Zhang X, Askarinam A, Goyal R, Chiang M, Yuan W, Chang L, Corselli M, Shen J, Pang S, Stoker D, Wu B, Ting K, Péault B, Soo C

Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering: it is largely dispensable and readily accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from adipose tissue and compared their bone-forming capacity with that of traditionally derived SVF. PSCs are a population (sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) of pericytes (CD146+CD34-CD45-) and adventitial cells (CD146-CD34+CD45-), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. We next sought to optimize PSCs for in vivo bone formation, adopting a demineralized bone matrix for osteoinduction and tricalcium phosphate particle formulation for protein release. Patient-matched, purified PSCs formed significantly more bone in comparison with traditionally derived SVF by all parameters. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 increased in vivo bone formation but with a massive adipogenic response. In contrast, recombinant Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL-1; a novel osteoinductive growth factor) selectively enhanced bone formation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, PSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. Finally, NELL-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce human PSC osteogenesis.
HubMed – drug


Enhanced lithium-induced brain recovery following cranial irradiation is not impeded by inflammation.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 Jun; 1(6): 469-79
Malaterre J, McPherson CS, Denoyer D, Lai E, Hagekyriakou J, Lightowler S, Shudo K, Ernst M, Ashley DM, Short JL, Wheeler G, Ramsay RG

Radiation-induced brain injury occurs in many patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and these deleterious effects are most profound in younger patients. Impaired neurocognitive functions in both humans and rodents are associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neural stem cell dysfunction. Here we evaluated the utility of lithium and a synthetic retinoid receptor agonist in reducing damage in a model of brain-focused irradiation in juvenile mice. We found that lithium stimulated brain progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation following cranial irradiation while also preventing oligodendrocyte loss in the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice. In response to inflammation induced by radiation, which may have encumbered the optimal reparative action of lithium, we used the anti-inflammatory synthetic retinoid Am80 that is in clinical use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Although Am80 reduced the number of cyclooxygenase-2-positive microglial cells following radiation treatment, it did not enhance lithium-induced neurogenesis recovery, and this alone was not significantly different from the effect of lithium on this proinflammatory response. Similarly, lithium was superior to Am80 in supporting the restoration of new doublecortin-positive neurons following irradiation. These data suggest that lithium is superior in its restorative effects to blocking inflammation alone, at least in the case of Am80. Because lithium has been in routine clinical practice for 60 years, these preclinical studies indicate that this drug might be beneficial in reducing post-therapy late effects in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy and that blocking inflammation in this context may not be as advantageous as previously suggested.
HubMed – drug


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