Beyond the Paleolithic Prescription: Incorporating Diversity and Flexibility in the Study of Human Diet Evolution.

Beyond the Paleolithic prescription: incorporating diversity and flexibility in the study of human diet evolution.

Nutr Rev. 2013 Aug; 71(8): 501-10
Turner BL, Thompson AL

Evolutionary paradigms of human health and nutrition center on the evolutionary discordance or “mismatch” model in which human bodies, reflecting adaptations established in the Paleolithic era, are ill-suited to modern industrialized diets, resulting in rapidly increasing rates of chronic metabolic disease. Though this model remains useful, its utility in explaining the evolution of human dietary tendencies is limited. The assumption that human diets are mismatched to the evolved biology of humans implies that the human diet is instinctual or genetically determined and rooted in the Paleolithic era. This review looks at current research indicating that human eating habits are learned primarily through behavioral, social, and physiological mechanisms that start in utero and extend throughout the life course. Adaptations that appear to be strongly genetic likely reflect Neolithic, rather than Paleolithic, adaptations and are significantly influenced by human niche-constructing behavior. Several examples are used to conclude that incorporating a broader understanding of both the evolved mechanisms by which humans learn and imprint eating habits and the reciprocal effects of those habits on physiology would provide useful tools for structuring more lasting nutrition interventions. HubMed – eating

Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in the Central Northern Part of Italy.

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013 Jul 19;
Martinelli N, Pavoni E, Filogari D, Ferrari N, Chiari M, Canelli E, Lombardi G

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for sporadic acute hepatitis in developed countries, where the infection is acquired probably through ingestion of contaminated food, in addition to travel-related cases. In this study, the circulation of HEV in wild boar from nine Italian provinces was evaluated. An overall seroprevalence of 10.2% was found, although there were differences among the provinces, while no samples were positive for HEV RNA detection. This study indicates an active circulation of HEV in the Italian wild boar populations and suggests to consider the zoonotic risk in handling and eating meat from this animal. HubMed – eating

Parent-Therapist Alliance in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013 Jul 17;
Forsberg S, Lotempio E, Bryson S, Fitzpatrick KK, Le Grange D, Lock J

This study aimed to describe the role of parent alliance in Family-Based Treatment (FBT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Differences between parent and child alliance with the therapist, mothers’ and fathers’ alliance, and their relationship to outcome were examined.Independent observers rated audiotapes of early therapy sessions to assess the therapeutic alliance of parents and adolescents with AN in FBT. Outcome was defined using a previously established cut-point for recovery from AN.Mothers’ and fathers’ alliance scores with the therapist were similar and significantly higher than adolescent alliance scores early in treatment. Combined parent alliance did not predict recovery at the end of treatment. Difference in alliance scores between mothers and fathers, and parents and their child also did not predict recovery at the end of treatment.In FBT, parents developed a strong alliance with the therapist early in treatment. These scores were consistent with the focus in FBT on parental management of eating disorder symptoms, as was the fact that alliance between adolescents and therapists was lower. Although parental therapeutic alliance was likely important in FBT, its role in treatment response remains uncertain. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. HubMed – eating

Primary Prevention for Resettled Refugees from Burma: Where to Begin?

J Community Health. 2013 Jul 17;
Haley HL, Walsh M, Tin Maung NH, Savage CP, Cashman S

Developing effective primary prevention initiatives may help recently arrived refugees retain some of their own healthy cultural habits and reduce the tendency to adopt detrimental ones. This research explores recent arrivals’ knowledge regarding eating behaviors, physical activity and sleep habits. Working collaboratively with community members, a healthy living curriculum was adapted and pilot tested in focus groups. A community-engaged approach to revising and implementing a health promotion tool was effective in beginning dialogue about primary prevention among a group of recently arrived refugees from Burma. Seven themes were identified as particularly relevant: food choices, living environment, health information, financial stress, mobility/transportation, social interaction and recreation, and hopes and dreams. Refugees desire more specific information about nutrition and exercise, and they find community health workers an effective medium for delivering this information. The outcomes of this study may inform future targeted interventions for health promotion with refugees from Burma. HubMed – eating