ASAM Magazine: The Voice of Addiction Medicine.

ASAM Magazine: The Voice of Addiction Medicine.

J Addict Med. 2013 Mar-Apr; 7(2): 150-1

HubMed – addiction


The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on addiction treatment.

J Addict Med. 2013 Mar-Apr; 7(2): 87-95
Grant TM, Brown NN, Dubovsky D, Sparrow J, Ries R

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure in amounts sufficient to cause permanent deficits in brain functioning. Extent of damage largely depends on timing, dose, frequency, and pattern of exposure. Timing is especially important because prenatal alcohol exposure during critical periods of gestation can affect brain development in ways that produce varying patterns of neurocognitive deficits and associated adaptive impairments. This article describes some of the more serious neurophysiological and neuropsychological sequelae of prenatal alcohol exposure that contribute to increased risk for substance abuse problems among people with an FASD. We discuss the unique interface between pharmacological treatment and FASD, noting that failure to consider the possibility of FASD in treatment planning may result in treatment failure and/or relapse. Finally, we present a clinical case example and recommend service accommodations to address some of the impairments in FASD that limit substance abuse treatment success. HubMed – addiction


Development of sensitization to methamphetamine in offspring prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone and buprenorphine.

Addict Biol. 2013 Apr 3;
Chiang YC, Hung TW, Ho IK

Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is lack of information on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring showed a marked change in the cross-tolerance to morphine compared with other groups. In the current study, this animal model was used to study effects of methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization in the offspring at their adulthood. The results showed no differences in either basal or acute METH-induced locomotor activity in any of the groups of animals tested. When male offspring received METH injections of 2?mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 5?days, behavioral sensitization was induced, as determined by motor activity. Furthermore, the distance and rate of development (slope) of locomotor activity and conditioned place preference induced by METH were significantly increased in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed animals compared with those in other groups. The dopamine D1 R in the nucleus accumbens of the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring had lower mRNA expression; but no significant changes in the ?-, ?-opioid, nociceptin, D2 R and D3 R receptors were noted. Furthermore, significant alterations were observed in the basal level of cAMP and the D1 R agonist enhanced adenylyl cyclase activity in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed group. Overall, the study demonstrates that D1 R and its downregulated cAMP signals are involved in enhancing METH-induced behavioral sensitization in prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. The study reveals that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused long-term effects on offspring and affected the dopaminergic system-related reward mechanism. HubMed – addiction


Towards the characterization and validation of alcohol use disorder subtypes: integrating consumption and symptom data.

Psychol Med. 2013 Apr 3; 1-17
Jackson KM, Bucholz KK, Wood PK, Steinley D, Grant JD, Sher KJ

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that measures of alcohol consumption, dependence and abuse are valid indicators of qualitatively different subtypes of alcohol involvement yet also fall along a continuum. The present study attempts to resolve the extent to which variations in alcohol involvement reflect a difference in kind versus a difference in degree. Method Data were taken from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample (51% male; 72% white/non-Hispanic) included respondents reporting past 12-month drinking at both waves (wave 1: n = 33644; wave 2: n = 25186). We compared factor mixture models (FMMs), a hybrid of common factor analysis (FA) and latent class analysis (LCA), against FA and LCA models using past 12-month alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria and five indicators of alcohol consumption reflecting frequency and heaviness of drinking. RESULTS: Model comparison revealed that the best-fitting model at wave 1 was a one-factor four-class FMM, with classes primarily varying across dependence and consumption indices. The model was replicated using wave 2 data, and validated against AUD and dependence diagnoses. Class stability from waves 1 to 2 was moderate, with greatest agreement for the infrequent drinking class. Within-class associations in the underlying latent factor also revealed modest agreement over time. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that alcohol involvement can be considered both categorical and continuous, with responses reduced to four patterns that quantitatively vary along a single dimension. Nosologists may consider hybrid approaches involving groups that vary in pattern of consumption and dependence symptomatology as well as variation of severity within group. HubMed – addiction