An Assessment of the Effects of Iyengar Yoga Practice on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A Pilot Study.

An assessment of the effects of Iyengar yoga practice on the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic respiratory diseases: A pilot study.

Can Respir J. 2013 Mar-Apr; 20(2): e17-23
Santana MJ, S-Parrilla J, Mirus J, Loadman M, Lien DC, Feeny D

To assess the effects of an Iyengar yoga program (IYP) on patients with chronic respiratory diseases.Patients attending lung transplant clinics in a tertiary institution were invited to participate in a two-phase, 12-week IYP that included 2 h biweekly classes. Doctors completed a formal physical and clinical assessment on candidates before enrollment. Patients with New York Association Class III or IV, or dyspnea grade IV were excluded. At baseline and at the end of 12-weeks, patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) and Health Utilities Index (HUI). Medication(s), 6 min walk test results and other clinical parameters were also recorded. Patients recorded the effects of the IYP on their daily living in journals. Nonparametric and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data.Twenty-five patients diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mean age 60 years) were invited to participate. At the end of the 12-week period, changes in HADS anxiety and CRQ fatigue scores were statistically significant (P<0.05) and changes in HUI ambulation, pain, emotion and overall score were clinically important. The content of the journals revealed patients' improvement in breathing capacity, mobility, energy, sleep and included positive feedback such as: "increased tidal volume with slowing expiration", "I have an overall feeling of wellbeing" and "excellent amount of energy".The findings suggest that yoga has significant potential to produce benefits. Potential benefits will be further explored in a national multisite study. HubMed – depression


Posterior Hyaloidotomy by Nd:YAG Laser Application in a Patient with Postpartum Depression Caused by Valsalva Retinopathy.

Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2013 Jan; 4(1): 64-8
Da?lio?lu MC, Co?kun M, Ilhan N, Tuzcu EA, Ari M, Ayintap E, Ilhan O

The aim of this report is to present a case of premacular hemorrhage in a 37-week pregnant woman with concurrent presence of postpartum depression secondary to her ocular disease.A 27-year-old woman in her 37th week of pregnancy presented with Valsalva retinopathy, which occurred in her left eye secondary to severe coughing. Her visual acuity was reduced to perception of hand motions, and she was agitated because of the loss of vision. The patient, who gave birth by cesarean section, was admitted for control examination 2 weeks after birth. No change was observed in premacular hemorrhage in control examination. However, the patient’s relatives stated that the patient was very agitated and disinterested in her baby. For this reason, the patient was referred to the psychiatry clinic, and she was diagnosed with postpartum depression. The anatomical location of the premacular hemorrhage was determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.Neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser hyaloidotomy was performed to her left eye on the same day. Rapid release of premacular hemorrhage into the vitreous cavity was observed immediately after Nd:YAG laser application. Two days after the application, the patient’s visual acuity had improved to 20/20. The clinical improvement positively impacted on the patient’s mood.In pregnant patients suffering from Valsalva retinopathy during the postpartum period, posterior hyaloidotomy by Nd:YAG laser can be implemented in terms of the patients’ own and their babies’ physical and mental health. HubMed – depression


Short-term Depression of External Globus Pallidus-Subthalamic Nucleus Synaptic Transmission and Implications for Patterning Subthalamic Activity.

J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 24; 33(17): 7130-44
Atherton JF, Menard A, Urbain N, Bevan MD

The frequency and pattern of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) are closely related to motor function. Although phasic, unitary GPe-STN inputs powerfully pattern STN activity ex vivo, correlated GPe-STN activity is not normally observed in vivo. To test the hypothesis that the GPe’s influence is constrained by short-term synaptic depression, unitary GPe-STN inputs were stimulated in rat and mouse brain slices at rates and in patterns that mimicked GPe activity in vivo. Together with connectivity estimates these data were then used to simulate GPe-STN transmission. Unitary GPe-STN synaptic connections initially generated large conductances and transmitted reliably. However, the amplitude and reliability of transmission declined rapidly (? = 0.6 ± 0.5 s) to <10% of their initial values when connections were stimulated at the mean rate of GPe activity in vivo (33 Hz). Recovery from depression (? = 17.3 ± 18.9 s) was also longer than pauses in tonic GPe activity in vivo. Depression was the result of the limited supply of release-ready vesicles and was in sharp contrast to Calyx of Held transmission, which exhibited 100% reliability. Injection of simulated GPe-STN conductances revealed that synaptic depression caused tonic, nonsynchronized GPe-STN activity to disrupt rather than abolish autonomous STN activity. Furthermore, synchronous inhibition of tonically active GPe-STN neurons or phasic activity of GPe-STN neurons reliably patterned STN activity through disinhibition and inhibition, respectively. Together, these data argue that the frequency and pattern of GPe activity profoundly influence its transmission to the STN. HubMed – depression


Amelioration of binge eating by nucleus accumbens shell deep brain stimulation in mice involves d2 receptor modulation.

J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 24; 33(17): 7122-9
Halpern CH, Tekriwal A, Santollo J, Keating JG, Wolf JA, Daniels D, Bale TL

Hedonic overconsumption contributing to obesity involves altered activation within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) has been implicated in reward-seeking behaviors, such as binge eating, which contributes to treatment resistance in obesity (Wise, 2012). Direct modulation of the NAS with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure currently under investigation in humans for the treatment of major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction, may also be effective in ameliorating binge eating. Therefore, we examined the ability of DBS of the NAS to block this behavior in mice. c-Fos immunoreactivity was assessed as a marker of DBS-mediated neuronal activation. NAS DBS was found to reduce binge eating and increased c-Fos levels in this region. DBS of the dorsal striatum had no influence on this behavior, demonstrating anatomical specificity for this effect. The dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, attenuated the action of DBS, whereas the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH-23390, was ineffective, suggesting that dopamine signaling involving D2 receptors underlies the effect of NAS DBS. To determine the potential translational relevance to the obese state, chronic NAS DBS was also examined in diet-induced obese mice and was found to acutely reduce caloric intake and induce weight loss. Together, these findings support the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine pathways in the hedonic mechanisms contributing to obesity, and the efficacy of NAS DBS to modulate this system. HubMed – depression


The impact of smoking cessation on schizophrenia and major depression.

Australas Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 24;
Ragg M, Gordon R, Ahmed T, Allan J

OBJECTIVE: This review sought to determine whether quitting smoking behaviour places people with a history of schizophrenia or major depression at risk of worsening symptoms or relapse. METHOD: Literature searches of Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. RESULTS: Six studies involving 735 people diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or psychotic disorder did not find significant change in mental health status after quitting smoking. Five out of six studies involving 1,293 people with a history of major depression did not find an increased risk of depression with abstinence from smoking, while one study did. Two of these studies found an improvement in depressive symptoms among quitters. CONCLUSIONS: There is no published evidence to support the hypothesis that quitting smoking is harmful to the mental health of people with schizophrenia. Smoking cessation does not appear to place smokers with a history of major depression at increased risk of worsening symptoms nor relapse, and may even improve their mood. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals should provide their patients with the same level of support to quit smoking that is given to the rest of the population. HubMed – depression



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