Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence.

Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence.

JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 20; 1-8
Copeland WE, Wolke D, Angold A, Costello EJ

IMPORTANCE Both bullies and victims of bullying are at risk for psychiatric problems in childhood, but it is unclear if this elevated risk extends into early adulthood. OBJECTIVE To test whether bullying and/or being bullied in childhood predicts psychiatric problems and suicidality in young adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric problems and family hardships. DESIGN Prospective, population-based study. SETTING Community sample from 11 counties in Western North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1420 participants who had being bullied and bullying assessed 4 to 6 times between the ages of 9 and 16 years. Participants were categorized as bullies only, victims only, bullies and victims (hereafter referred to as bullies/victims), or neither. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Psychiatric outcomes, which included depression, anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, substance use disorders, and suicidality (including recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt), were assessed in young adulthood (19, 21, and 24-26 years) by use of structured diagnostic interviews. RESULTS Victims and bullies/victims had elevated rates of young adult psychiatric disorders, but also elevated rates of childhood psychiatric disorders and family hardships. After controlling for childhood psychiatric problems or family hardships, we found that victims continued to have a higher prevalence of agoraphobia (odds ratio [OR], 4.6 [95% CI, 1.7-12.5]; P < .01), generalized anxiety (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.1-6.3]; P < .001), and panic disorder (OR, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.5-6.5]; P < .01) and that bullies/victims were at increased risk of young adult depression (OR, 4.8 [95% CI, 1.2-19.4]; P < .05), panic disorder (OR, 14.5 [95% CI, 5.7-36.6]; P < .001), agoraphobia (females only; OR, 26.7 [95% CI, 4.3-52.5]; P < .001), and suicidality (males only; OR, 18.5 [95% CI, 6.2-55.1]; P < .001). Bullies were at risk for antisocial personality disorder only (OR, 4.1 [95% CI, 1.1-15.8]; P < .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The effects of being bullied are direct, pleiotropic, and long-lasting, with the worst effects for those who are both victims and bullies. HubMed – depression


Surviving men’s depression: Women partners’ perspectives.

Health (London). 2013 Feb 19;
Bottorff JL, Oliffe JL, Kelly MT, Johnson JL, Carey J

While men’s gendered experiences of depression have been described, the perspectives of women partners who are affected by men’s depression have received little attention. Women partners were recruited to explore how men’s depression impacts them and its influence on gender regimes. Individual interviews with 29 women spouses were coded and analysed. Although idealized femininity positions women as endlessly patient and caring, our findings reveal significant challenges in attempting to fulfil these gender ideals in the context of living with a male partner who is experiencing depression. The strain and drain of living with a depressed man was a key element of women’s experiences. Four sub-themes were identified: (1) resisting the emotional caregiver role, (2) shouldering family responsibilities, (3) connecting men to professional care and (4) preserving the feminine self. The findings suggest that men’s depression has great potential to dislocate heterosexual gender regimes, and attention to gender relations should be included to ensure successful care management of men who experience depression. HubMed – depression


[Modulation of hippocampal glutamate and NMDA/AMPA receptor by homocysteine in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat depression].

Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2013 Feb 25; 65(1): 61-71
Liu H, Wen LM, Qiao H, An SC

The study was to investigate the role of homocysteine (Hcy) which was released by hippocampal glial cells and its relationship with NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor in depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and explore the mechanism of changes of Glu/Glu receptor in glial cells and neurons. CUMS-induced depression model was established. The body weight of rats was weighed on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st days during the experiment. The behavioral performances were observed by means of sucrose consumption test, open field test and tail suspension test. Intrahippocampal microinjection of Hcy, NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX was performed under stereotaxic guide cannula. The concentration of Glu and the expression of its receptors’ subunits were detected respectively by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blot. The Hcy content and the levels of phosphorylation of NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor in hippocampus were separately determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CUMS significantly induced the depression-like behaviors in rats, and the content of Glu and Hcy, the expression of NMDA receptors’ subunits NR1/NR2B and the level of phosphorylation of NMDA receptor (p-NMDAR) in hippocampus increased significantly, while the expression of AMPA receptors‘ subunits GluR2/3 and the level of phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (p-AMPAR) decreased significantly. Microinjection of Hcy into hippocampus resulted in similar animal depression-like behaviors and increased Glu content compared to the CON/SAL group, the expression of NR1/NR2B/GluR2/3 and the level of p-NMDAR increased significantly, but the level of p-AMPAR reduced observably. Intrahippocampal injections of MK-801 effectively improved the depression-like behaviors induced by CUMS and Hcy, and attenuated the elevation of Glu content induced by Hcy in hippocampus, whereas NBQX could not improve the depression-like behaviors, but also decreased the Glu content induced by Hcy remarkably. These results suggest that CUMS may contribute to the production and release of Hcy via hippocampal astrocytes. Through the increase of expression of NR1/NR2B/GluR2/3 and level of p-NMDAR, and the decrease of level of p-AMPAR, Hcy results in elevation of Glu level, which leads to depression-like behaviors in the end. In a word, the Hcy released by astrocytes plays an important role in stress-induced elevation of Glu content and variation of NMDA/AMPA receptors in hippocampus. HubMed – depression


Role of social encounter-induced activation of prefrontal serotonergic systems in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Feb 20;
Ago Y, Araki R, Tanaka T, Sasaga A, Nishiyama S, Takuma K, Matsuda T

Isolation-reared male rodents show abnormal behaviors such as hyperlocomotion, aggressive behaviors, deficits of prepulse inhibition, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, but the neurochemical mechanism for the effects of psychological stress in these animals is not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social interactions between isolation-reared mice and intruder mice on brain monoaminergic systems. A cage was divided in two compartments by a mesh partition to prevent direct physical interactions. The 20-min encounter with an intruder elicited a restless and hyperexcitable state (hyperactivity) in male, but not female, isolation-reared mice, whereas encounters with a sleeping intruder or a novel object did not. Although the encounter did not affect prefrontal neuronal-activity-marker c-Fos expression, dopamine (DA) levels, or serotonin (5-HT) levels in male group-reared mice or female isolation-reared mice, it increased prefrontal c-Fos expression, DA levels, and 5-HT levels in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, encounter-induced increases in c-Fos expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area, but not nucleus accumbens shell, were much greater in isolation-reared than group-reared male mice. A 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonist attenuated isolation-induced aggressive behaviors and encounter-induced hyperactivity, c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus, and increases in prefrontal 5-HT levels. These findings suggest that the prefrontal DA and 5-HT systems are activated by encounter stimulation in male isolation-reared mice and the encounter-induced activation of 5-HT system triggers the induction of some abnormal behaviors in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, this study implies that the encounter stimulation-induced signal has a pharmacological significance.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 20 February 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.52. HubMed – depression


Cannabinoids ameliorate impairments induced by chronic stress to synaptic plasticity and short-term memory.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Feb 20;
Abush H, Akirav I

Repeated stress is one of the environmental factors that precipitates and exacerbates mental illnesses like depression and anxiety as well as cognitive impairments. We have previously shown that cannabinoids can prevent the effects of acute stress on learning and memory. Here we aimed to find whether chronic cannabinoid treatment would alleviate the long-term effects of exposure to chronic restraint stress on memory and plasticity as well as on behavioral and neuroendocrine measures of anxiety and depression. Late adolescence rats were exposed to chronic restraint stress for two weeks followed each day by systemic treatment with vehicle or with the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1.2?mg/kg). Thirty days after the last exposure to stress, rats demonstrated impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in the ventral subiculum (vSub)-nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway, impaired performance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent object recognition task and the hippocampal-dependent spatial version of this task, increased anxiety levels, and significantly reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the amygdala, hippocampus, PFC and NAc. Chronic WIN55,212-2 administration prevented the stress-induced impairment in LTP levels and in the spatial task, with no effect on stress-induced alterations in unconditioned anxiety levels or GR levels. The CB1 antagonist AM251 (0.3?mg/kg) prevented the ameliorating effects of WIN55,212-2 on LTP and short-term memory. Hence, the beneficial effects of WIN55,212-2 on memory and plasticity are mediated by CB1 receptors and are not mediated by alterations in GR levels in the brain areas tested. Our findings suggest that cannabinoid receptor activation could represent a novel approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits that accompany a variety of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 20 February 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.51. HubMed – depression



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