Addiction Rehab: Treatment Duration and Premature Termination of Psychotherapy in Personality Disorders: Predictive Performance of Psychodynamic Personality Functioning.

Treatment duration and premature termination of psychotherapy in personality disorders: predictive performance of psychodynamic personality functioning.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Psychiatr Pract. 2012 May; 18(3): 172-86
Ingenhoven TJ, Duivenvoorden HJ, Passchier J, VAN DEN Brink W

Objective. Little is known about predictors of treatment duration and premature termination of psychotherapy. Method. Sociodemographic variables, descriptive DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, general symptom severity, and psychodynamic personality functioning were assessed in 148 inpatients with personality disorders who were receiving psychotherapy. Psychodynamic personality functioning was assessed using the Developmental Profile (DP). Predictive performance and incremental value over and beyond demographics and descriptive diagnoses were determined. Results. In contrast to DSM-IV diagnoses and symptom severity, psychodynamic variables and the level of personality functioning significantly predicted treatment duration and premature treatment termination. Longer treatment duration was predicted by adaptive DP levels of personality functioning, whereas shorter treatment duration was associated with maladaptive personality functioning (primitive DP levels, including fragmentation and self-centeredness). DP variables independently explained 6% of the variance. Conclusion. In contrast to DSM-IV diagnoses and general symptom severity, psychodynamic personality variables significantly predicted treatment duration and premature discharge. These findings support the relevance of psycho-dynamic assessments in clinical practice, the DSM-5 proposals for the definition of personality functioning, and the predictive validity of the DP. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:172-186).
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Food reward in the obese and after weight loss induced by calorie restriction and bariatric surgery.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 May 22;
Berthoud HR, Zheng H, Shin AC

Increased availability of tasty, energy-dense foods has been blamed as a major factor in the alarmingly high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic disease, even in young age. A heated debate has started as to whether some of these foods should be considered addictive, similar to drugs and alcohol. One of the main arguments for food addiction is the similarity of the neural mechanisms underlying reward generation by foods and drugs. Here, we will discuss how food intake can generate reward and how behavioral and neural reward functions are different in obese subjects. Because most studies simply compare lean and obese subjects, it is not clear whether predisposing differences in reward functions cause overeating and weight gain, or whether repeated exposure or secondary effects of the obese state alter reward functions. While studies in both rodents and humans demonstrate preexisting differences in reward functions in the obese, studies in rodent models using calorie restriction and gastric bypass surgery show that some differences are reversible by weight loss and are therefore secondary to the obese state.
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A unified approach to multiple-set canonical correlation analysis and principal components analysis.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2012 May 22;
Hwang H, Jung K, Takane Y, Woodward TS

Multiple-set canonical correlation analysis and principal components analysis are popular data reduction techniques in various fields, including psychology. Both techniques aim to extract a series of weighted composites or components of observed variables for the purpose of data reduction. However, their objectives of performing data reduction are different. Multiple-set canonical correlation analysis focuses on describing the association among several sets of variables through data reduction, whereas principal components analysis concentrates on explaining the maximum variance of a single set of variables. In this paper, we provide a unified framework that combines these seemingly incompatible techniques. The proposed approach embraces the two techniques as special cases. More importantly, it permits a compromise between the techniques in yielding solutions. For instance, we may obtain components in such a way that they maximize the association among multiple data sets, while also accounting for the variance of each data set. We develop a single optimization function for parameter estimation, which is a weighted sum of two criteria for multiple-set canonical correlation analysis and principal components analysis. We minimize this function analytically. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the performance of the proposed approach based on synthetic data. We also apply the approach for the analysis of functional neuroimaging data to illustrate its empirical usefulness.
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[The association between the patient-nurse working alliance and the perception of the substance use control in an addiction therapy setting: a descriptive correlation study].

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Rech Soins Infirm. 2012 Mar; 30-42
Senn S, Needham I, Antille S

The aim of this study is to explore the association between the patient-nurse working alliance and the degree of how much substance use control is perceived as burdensome in an addiction therapy setting. Imogene King’s theory and the working alliance concept were used as the theoretical framework. The investigation was undertaken using a self-administered questionnaire with the short-form of the working alliance inventory (WAI) translated and validated in French and targeting a convenience sample (n=28). In this sample the working alliance was evaluated by 12 questions on a Likert-Scale and perceived as generally good (x = 61.68, max = 84). A significant negative linear relation was found between the perception of the drug-controls as burdensome, evaluated by an additional question on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the establishment of a working alliance (r = -0.67, p-value > 0.001). Furthermore, the form of admission is important as involuntarily hospitalized patients (n = 7) (t, p-value = 0.018) form poorer working alliances, and perceive the controls as more burdensome (Z, p-value = 0.004) as opposed to voluntarily hospitalized patients (n = 21). Even though these results cannot be generalized because of the small sample (n = 28), they raise important questions for nursing practice, especially for involuntarily hospitalized patients. These patients seem to be more susceptible to any disturbance of the relationship and possible consequences need to be taken into account. In addition, drug-control might have to be reassessed. The findings also raise questions about the use of camera supervision as an alternative to nursing supervision and about the need for the primary nurses to refrain from control interventions.
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Carrie Fisher divulges on shock therapy, addiction, recovery to Ohio State

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

The discussion started around 7:30 pm Wednesday, drawing more than 800 attendees and raising more than $ 320000 for the STAR Program, a treatment initiative for victims of serious trauma. At the event Moriarty questioned Fisher about her life in mostly …
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Go into rehab or lose benefits, drink and drug addicts are told

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

'Under universal credit we want to do more to encourage and support claimants into rehabilitation for addiction and start them on the road to recovery and, eventually, work. Getting people into work and encouraging independence is our ultimate goal.
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