Addiction Rehab: Tobacco Smoking Among People Living With a Psychotic Illness: The Second Australian Survey of Psychosis.

Tobacco smoking among people living with a psychotic illness: The second Australian survey of psychosis.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012 May 29;
Cooper J, Mancuso SG, Borland R, Slade T, Galletly C, Castle D

Objective: The aims of this study were to (a) describe patterns of tobacco smoking among Australians living with a psychotic illness and (b) explore the association between smoking and measures of psychopathology, psychiatric history, psychosocial functioning, physical health, substance use and demographic characteristics.Methods: Data were from 1812 participants in the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis. Participants were aged 18-64 years and resided in seven mental health catchment sites across five states of Australia. Bivariate statistics were used to compare smokers with non-smokers on the measures of interest, and to compare ICD-10 diagnostic categories on measures of smoking prevalence, nicotine addiction and quitting history. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test whether (a) demographics and psychiatric history were associated with having ever smoked and (b) whether symptoms and psychosocial functioning were independently associated with current smoking, after controlling for demographics, psychiatric history and substance use.Results: The prevalence of current tobacco smoking was 66.6% (72% of men and 59% of women); lifetime prevalence was 81%. In univariate analyses, individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were most likely to be smoking tobacco (70%) and were more nicotine dependent. Smokers reported worse perceived physical health, lower body mass index and waist circumference, and more lifetime medical conditions. A younger age of illness onset, male gender and low education were associated with having ever smoked. Associations with current smoking included low education, male gender, no formal employment, worse negative symptoms, higher daily caffeine consumption, and alcohol dependence and substance abuse/dependence.Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco smoking is high amongst people with a psychotic disorder, and is associated with adverse mental health symptoms as well as high rates of other substance use, poorer subjective physical health, and a higher risk of the many known health consequences of smoking.
HubMed – addiction


Dopamine-Dependent Architecture of Cortico-Subcortical Network Connectivity.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Cereb Cortex. 2012 May 29;
Cole DM, Oei NY, Soeter RP, Both S, van Gerven JM, Rombouts SA, Beckmann CF

Maladaptive dopaminergic mediation of reward processing in humans is thought to underlie multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. Mechanisms responsible for the development of such disorders may depend on individual differences in neural signaling within large-scale cortico-subcortical circuitry. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and pharmacological challenges in healthy volunteers, we identified opposing dopamine agonistic and antagonistic neuromodulatory effects on distributed functional interactions between specific subcortical regions and corresponding neocortical “resting-state” networks, known to be involved in distinct aspects of cognition and reward processing. We found that, relative to a placebo, levodopa and haloperidol challenges, respectively, increased or decreased the functional connectivity between (1) the midbrain and a “default mode” network, (2) the right caudate and a right-lateralized frontoparietal network, and (3) the ventral striatum and a fronto-insular network. Further, we found drug-specific associations between brain circuitry reactivity to dopamine modulation and individual differences in trait impulsivity, revealing dissociable drug-personality interaction effects across distinct dopamine-dependent cortico-subcortical networks. Our findings identify possible systems underlying pathogenesis and treatment efficacy in disorders of dopamine deficiency.
HubMed – addiction


Alterations of Homocysteine Serum Levels during Alcohol Withdrawal Are Influenced by Folate and Riboflavin: Results from the German Investigation on Neurobiology in Alcoholism (GINA).

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 May 29;
Heese P, Linnebank M, Semmler A, Muschler MA, Heberlein A, Frieling H, Stoffel-Wagner B, Kornhuber J, Banger M, Bleich S, Hillemacher T

Aims: Various studies have shown that plasma homocysteine (HCY) serum levels are elevated in actively drinking alcohol-dependent patients a during alcohol withdrawal, while rapidly declining during abstinence. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated not only with blood alcohol concentration (BAC), but also with deficiency of different B-vitamins, particularly folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin. Methods: Our study included 168 inpatients (110 men, 58 women) after admission for detoxification treatment. BAC, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, thiamine and riboflavin were obtained on admission (Day 1). HCY was assessed on Days 1, 7 and 11. Results: HCY levels significantly declined during withdrawal. General linear models and linear regression analysis showed an influence of BAC, folate and riboflavin on the HCY levels on admission as well as on HCY changes occurring during alcohol withdrawal. No significant influence was found for thiamine, cobalamin and pyridoxine. Conclusions: These findings show that not only BAC and plasma folate levels, but also plasma levels of riboflavin influence HCY plasma levels in alcohol-dependent patients.
HubMed – addiction


Faithless to faithful – Steph tells his story

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

SIX years ago Steph Macleod found himself in Rehab for homeless men with addiction problems. Now clean and sober, the singer/songwriter is coming to Lewis on the invitation of Martin's Memorial Church to share his experiences with others and tell his …
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Unfortunately There Are No Rehab Clinics for Addiction To Scramble With Friends

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I like Scramble because it's simple, yet addictive. It's one of those games that I instantly create 20 different rounds of, just to get my fill. Scramble becomes a game of speed, where your eyes can recognize words as fast as your fingers can swipe …
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New Jersey investigates painkiller addiction among youth

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Chris Christie is examining the growing problem of prescription drug addiction by young people in New Jersey. One of the task force members, former Gov. Jim McGreevey, says some high school students who suffer sports injuries become addicted to …


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