Addiction Rehab: Stress-Related Neuropeptides and Addictive Behaviors: Beyond the Usual Suspects.

Stress-related neuropeptides and addictive behaviors: beyond the usual suspects.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuron. 2012 Oct 4; 76(1): 192-208
Schank JR, Ryabinin AE, Giardino WJ, Ciccocioppo R, Heilig M

Addictive disorders are chronic, relapsing conditions that cause extensive disease burden. Genetic factors partly account for susceptibility to addiction, but environmental factors such as stressful experiences and prolonged exposure of the brain to addictive drugs promote its development. Progression to addiction involves neuroadaptations within neurocircuitry that mediates stress responses and is influenced by several peptidergic neuromodulators. While corticotrophin releasing factor is the prototypic member of this class, recent work has identified several additional stress-related neuropeptides that play an important role in regulation of drug intake and relapse, including the urocortins, nociceptin, substance P, and neuropeptide S. Here, we review this emerging literature, discussing to what extent the properties of these neuromodulators are shared or distinct and considering their potential as drug targets.
HubMed – addiction


The fibroblast growth factor family: neuromodulation of affective behavior.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuron. 2012 Oct 4; 76(1): 160-74
Turner CA, Watson SJ, Akil H

In this review, we propose a broader view of the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in modulating brain function. We suggest that some of the FGF ligands together with the FGF receptors are altered in individuals with affective disorder and modulate emotionality in animal models. Thus, we propose that members of the FGF family may be genetic predisposing factors for anxiety, depression, or substance abuse; that they play a key organizing role during early development but continue to play a central role in neuroplasticity in adulthood; and that they work not only over extended time frames, but also via rapid signaling mechanisms, allowing them to exert an “on-line” influence on behavior. Therefore, the FGF family appears to be a prototype of “switch genes” that are endowed with organizational and modulatory properties across the lifespan, and that may represent molecular candidates as biomarkers and treatment targets for affective and addictive disorders.
HubMed – addiction


Neuropeptide transmission in brain circuits.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuron. 2012 Oct 4; 76(1): 98-115
van den Pol AN

Neuropeptides are found in many mammalian CNS neurons where they play key roles in modulating neuronal activity. In contrast to amino acid transmitter release at the synapse, neuropeptide release is not restricted to the synaptic specialization, and after release, a neuropeptide may diffuse some distance to exert its action through a G protein-coupled receptor. Some neuropeptides such as hypocretin/orexin are synthesized only in single regions of the brain, and the neurons releasing these peptides probably have similar functional roles. Other peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) are synthesized throughout the brain, and neurons that synthesize the peptide in one region have no anatomical or functional connection with NPY neurons in other brain regions. Here, I review converging data revealing a complex interaction between slow-acting neuromodulator peptides and fast-acting amino acid transmitters in the control of energy homeostasis, drug addiction, mood and motivation, sleep-wake states, and neuroendocrine regulation.
HubMed – addiction


Dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission in cortex and striatum.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuron. 2012 Oct 4; 76(1): 33-50
Tritsch NX, Sabatini BL

Among the many neuromodulators used by the mammalian brain to regulate circuit function and plasticity, dopamine (DA) stands out as one of the most behaviorally powerful. Perturbations of DA signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis or exploited in the treatment of many neuropsychiatric diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), addiction, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and Tourette’s syndrome. Although the precise mechanisms employed by DA to exert its control over behavior are not fully understood, DA is known to regulate many electrical and biochemical aspects of neuronal function including excitability, synaptic transmission, integration and plasticity, protein trafficking, and gene transcription. In this Review, we discuss the actions of DA on ionic and synaptic signaling in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and striatum, brain areas in which dopaminergic dysfunction is thought to be central to disease.
HubMed – addiction



Opiate addiction rehab Port Saint Lucie Florida (772) 337-8500 – Call 772-337-8500 New Life Addiction Treatment Center: Opiate addiction rehab Port Saint Lucie Florida. Substance drug abuse, detox, chemical dependency, alcohol addiction help. PSL Port St. Lucie, St. Lucie County.


Find More Addiction Rehab Information…