Addiction Rehab: Lack of Association of a Functional Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphism With Risk of Tobacco Smoking: Results From a Multicenter Case-Control Study.

Lack of Association of a Functional Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphism With Risk of Tobacco Smoking: Results From a Multicenter Case-Control Study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jan 3;
Mutschler J, Abbruzzese E, von der Goltz C, Dinter C, Mobascher A, Thiele H, Diaz-Lacava A, Dahmen N, Gallinat J, Majic T, Petrovsky N, Thuerauf N, Kornhuber J, Gründer G, Rademacher L, Brinkmeyer J, Wienker T, Wagner M, Winterer G, Kiefer F

BACKGROUND: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) modulates dopaminergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex as well as in the mesolimbic reward system. Since the reward system mediates addictive behavior, the COMT gene is a strong candidate gene regarding the pathophysiology of tobacco dependence and smoking behavior. Because of rather conflicting results in previous studies, the purpose of the present study was to test for association between a functional genetic variant in the COMT gene (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs4680) and tobacco smoking behavior. METHODS: In a population-based case-control multicenter study designed for tobacco addiction research, a total of 551 current smokers of European ancestry and 548 age-matched healthy volunteers (never-smokers) were genotyped for SNP rs4680 and extensively characterized concerning their smoking behavior. RESULTS: We found no association between smoking status and SNP rs4680 genotype nor did we find a significant association to the degree of tobacco dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Although prefrontal cortical and ventral striatal activity are highly relevant for addictive behavior, and under partial control of COMT rs4680 genotype, no association between COMT and smoking behavior was observed. Other genetic variants may account for the high heritability of behavioral smoking phenotypes.
HubMed – addiction


PXR Polymorphisms Interacted With CYP2B6 Polymorphisms on Methadone Metabolites.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Feb; 33(1): 137-140
Tsai HJ, Wang SC, Tian JN, Chang TK, Ho IK, Hsiao CF, Chen CH, Tan HK, Lin L, Wu CS, Su LW, Huang CL, Yang YH, Liu ML, Lin KM, Liu YL

HubMed – addiction


Examination of value of the future and health beliefs to explain dietary and physical activity behaviors.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Res Social Adm Pharm. 2012 Dec 31;
Garza KB, Harris CV, Bolding MS

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a negative association between value of the future (preference for long-term vs. short-term rewards) and harmful addictive behaviors; however, research in the area of preventive behaviors is limited and has shown conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were: (1) to examine the association among value of the future and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors, and (2) to assess whether value of the future explained additional variance in behaviors after controlling for theory-based health beliefs related to coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: An online survey was conducted in adults (N = 172) with no prior history of CHD. A delay discounting task was administered to measure value of the future. Questionnaire items were based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and included CHD knowledge, perceived risk, perceived severity, perceived benefits of and barriers to behavior change, self-efficacy, cues to action, diet and PA behaviors and demographic variables. RESULTS: High value of the future was associated with younger age, lower BMI, more healthful diet, and increased PA. After controlling for HBM components and demographics, value of the future did not explain any additional variance in diet or PA behaviors. Significant predictors of healthful diet included female gender (P = .013), increased age (P = .029), greater than high school education (P = .023), greater diet-related self-efficacy (P = .021), and not having received a healthcare provider recommendation to improve diet (P = .018). Significant predictors of PA level included income between $ 20,000 and $ 69,999 (P = .014), greater exercise-related self-efficacy (P < .001) and not having received a healthcare provider recommendation to increase levels of PA (P = .015). CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors to prevent CHD may be associated with a person's outlook on the future; however, self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of behavior. These findings support recommendations for enhancement of diet- and PA-related self-efficacy and problem-solving to address myopia in terms of long-term health benefits. HubMed – addiction


Prospects for scaling-up supervised injection facilities in Canada: the role of evidence in legal and political decision-making.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2013 Jan 3;
Hyshka E, Bubela T, Wild TC

BACKGROUND: North America’s first supervised injection facility-Insite-opened in Vancouver in 2003 under a special federal legal exemption. Insite has faced significant political and legal opposition, which culminated in a recent Supreme Court of Canada ruling that ordered the federal Minister of Health to extend the facility’s exemption and cited evidence that the facility is life-preserving and does not increase public disorder. Officials in several other cities have initiated or accelerated preparations for new facilities due to speculation that the ruling provides sufficient legal basis to expand supervised injection in Canada. However, a comprehensive assessment of the barriers and facilitators to supervised injection facility scale-up is lacking. METHODS: This policy case study reviews a corpus of jurisprudence, legislation, scientific research and media texts to: describe the role of evidence in legal and political decision-making around Insite; analyze the implications of the Insite decision for new facilities; and discuss alternative avenues for supervised injection facility expansion. RESULTS: The Insite decision does not simplify the path towards new supervised injection facilities, but nor does it does pose an insurmountable hurdle. Whether new facilities will be established depends largely upon how the Minister of Health interprets the ruling, the proponents’ ability to demonstrate need and support from municipal and provincial governments and community members. Formally defining supervised injection as within nurses’ scope of practice could further efforts to establish new facilities. CONCLUSION: Additional court action may be required to establish a stable legal and policy basis for supervised injection facilities in Canada.
HubMed – addiction


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