Addiction Rehab: Differential Influence of Morphine Sensitization on Accumbens Shell and Core Dopamine Responses to Morphine- and Food-Conditioned Stimuli.

Differential influence of morphine sensitization on accumbens shell and core dopamine responses to morphine- and food-conditioned stimuli.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Sep 8;
Bassareo V, Cucca F, Cadoni C, Musio P, Di Chiara G

RATIONALE: Sensitization of the incentive and dopamine (DA) stimulant properties of drug-conditioned stimuli (CSs) by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse has been assigned an important role in the genesis of drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: To test in rats if morphine-induced sensitization potentiates incentive and DA-releasing properties in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core elicited by presentation of a morphine-conditioned stimulus(CS) and if this property generalizes to a non-drug-(palatable food, Fonzies)-CS. METHODS: Controls and rats previously sensitized by morphine were trained via three daily sessions consisting of a 10-min presentation of CS (Fonzies filled box, FB) followed by s.c. saline and morphine (1 mg/kg) or by standard food and Fonzies. Rats were implanted with microdialysis probes and the next-day incentive reactions and NAc shell and core DA were monitored during CS presentation and subsequent morphine (1 mg/kg) administration or Fonzies feeding. RESULTS: Morphine sensitization increased incentive and NAc shell and core DA responses to morphine-CS. Morphine conditioning per se increased incentive reactions and NAc shell but not core DA responses to FB presentation. Morphine sensitization potentiated incentive responses but did not affect NAc shell and core DA responses to Fonzies-CS. Fonzies conditioning increased incentive reactions and NAc core but not shell DA responses to FB presentation. CONCLUSIONS: These observations confirm the prediction of the incentive sensitization theory in the case of drug-CS but not of non-drug-CS. NAc DA might be differentially involved in the expression of incentive sensitization of drug- and non-drug-CSs, thus providing a clue for the abnormal incentive properties of drug CSs.
HubMed – addiction


The Prevalence of Employed Nurses Identified or Enrolled in Substance Use Monitoring Programs.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Nurs Res. 2012 Sep 6;
Monroe TB, Kenaga H, Dietrich MS, Carter MA, Cowan RL

BACKGROUND:: For over 100 years, nurses’ particular work conditions have been anecdotally associated with increases in substance abuse. Reasons include job-related stress and easy access to medications. Current research has suggested that prevalence of nurses with substance use problems is actually similar to, if not less than, that seen in the general population. However, given nurses’ proximity to critical patient care, the potential threat to public health, as well as the current shortage of practitioners and problems related to retention, the lack of research on the effectiveness of the two existing treatment protocols (disciplinary and alternative-to-discipline [ATD]) is a pressing issue of concern to the nursing profession. OBJECTIVES:: The aims of this study were to estimate the 1-year prevalence of employed nurses requiring an intervention for substance use problems in the United States and the 1-year prevalence of nurses enrolled in substance abuse monitoring programs and to compare the sum total of nurses identified in disciplinary and alternative programs with the general population. METHODS:: This was a balanced stratified sampling design study. Measurements included the National Council of State Boards of Nursing 2010 Survey of Regulatory Boards Disciplinary Actions on Nurses, the 2009 annual reports of alternative programs, the 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, and the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. RESULTS:: The 2009 1-year prevalence of employed nurses identified with substance use problems in the United States and its territories was 17,085 or 0.51% of the employed nursing population. The 1-year prevalence of nurses newly enrolled in substance abuse monitoring programs in the United States and its territories was 12,060 or 0.36%. Although every National Council of State Boards of Nursing jurisdiction has a disciplinary monitoring program, only 73% (n = 43) of these jurisdictions have alternative programs. Despite this, on average, alternative programs had nearly 75% more new enrollees (9,715) when compared with disciplinary programs (2,345). The prevalence of nurses identified with a substance use problem requiring an intervention (and likely treatment) is lower than the prevalence of those who report receiving substance abuse treatment in the general population (0.51% vs. 1.0%). CONCLUSIONS:: The ATD programs potentially have a greater impact on protecting the public than disciplinary programs because ATD programs identify and/or enroll more nurses with substance use problems, thereby initially removing more nurses with substance use problems from direct patient care.
HubMed – addiction


All-cause and liver-related mortality in hepatitis C infected drug users followed for 33 years: a controlled study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Hepatol. 2012 Sep 4;
Kielland KB, Skaug K, Amundsen EJ, Dalgard O

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in injecting drug users (IDUs) has not been well described. The aim of this study was to compare long term all-cause and liver-related mortality among anti-HCV positive IDUs with and without persisting HCV infection. METHODS: A retrospective-prospective controlled cohort design was applied. All IDUs admitted to resident drug treatment 1970-1984 and with available stored sera were screened for anti-HCV antibody. Anti-HCV positive individuals were further tested for the presence of HCV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). All-cause and liver-related mortality was compared between HCV RNA positive (n=328) and HCV RNA negative individuals (n=195). Observation was accomplished through register linkage to national registers. Mean observation time was 33 years. RESULTS: All-cause mortality rate was 1.85 (95% CI 1.62-2.11) per 100 person-years, males 2.11 (95% CI 1.84-2.46), females 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.79). Mortality rates were not influenced by persisting HCV infection. Main causes of death were intoxications (45.0%), suicide (9.1%), and accidents (8.2%). Liver disease was cause of death in 7.5% of deaths among HCV RNA positive subjects. Five of 13 deaths among male IDUs with persisting HCV infection occurring after age 50 were caused by liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: The all-cause mortality in IDUs is high and with no difference between HCV RNA positive and HCV RNA negative individuals the first three decades after HCV transmission. However, among IDUs with chronic HCV infection who have survived until they reach the age of 50 years, HCV infection emerges as a main cause of death.
HubMed – addiction



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