What’s Conditioned in Conditioned Place Preference?

What’s conditioned in conditioned place preference?

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013 Feb 2;
Huston JP, Silva MA, Topic B, Müller CP

Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a learned behavior shown in many vertebrates, including humans. CPP occurs when a subject comes to prefer one place more than others because the preferred location has been paired previously with rewarding events. The CPP paradigm is widely used to explore the reinforcing effects of natural and pharmacological stimuli, including drugs of addiction. There is a general assumption that an acquired place preference is based on classical conditioning derived ‘incentive motivation’. However, this may be an oversimplification of the multiple learning processes involved. We argue that although CPP may appear as an incentive-driven behavior related to secondary reinforcers, it may also be a result of operant conditioning of behavior prevailing at the conditioning site, as well as a result of conditioned treatment effects. Here, we outline alternative explanations for an observed CPP, which may fundamentally affect the interpretation of results with this paradigm in its use as a screening tool for rewarding properties of treatments.
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Risky Alcohol Use and Serum Aminotransferase Levels in HIV-Infected Adults With and Without Hepatitis C.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2013 Mar; 74(2): 266-70
Tsui JI, Cheng DM, Libman H, Bridden C, Saitz R, Samet JH

ABSTRACT. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between risky drinking amounts and serum aminotransferase levels in HIV-infected adults with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Method: In a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults with current or past alcohol problems, we assessed whether drinking risky amounts (as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) was associated with higher levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) over time, stratifying analyses by HCV status. Generalized linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine the association between risky drinking and natural log-transformed AST and ALT over time. Results: Among HIV/HCV-coinfected persons (n = 200), risky drinking was associated with a higher adjusted mean AST (62.2 vs. 51.4 U/L; adjusted ratio of means 1.2, 95% CI [1.07, 1.37], p = .003) and ALT (51.3 vs. 41.6 U/L; adjusted ratio of means 1.2, 95% CI [1.07, 1.42], p = .004) compared with non-risky drinking. In contrast, among HIV-infected adults without HCV infection (n = 197), there were no significant differences between those who did and did not drink risky amounts in AST (34.7 vs. 33.3 U/L; adjusted ratio of means = 1.0, 95% CI [0.95, 1.14], p = .36) or ALT (29.1 vs. 28.7 U/L; adjusted ratio of means = 1.0, 95% CI [0.91, 1.13], p = .78). Conclusions: Among HIV-infected adults with HCV, those who drink risky amounts have higher serum aminotransferase levels than those who do not drink risky amounts. These results suggest that drinking risky amounts may be particularly harmful in HIV/HCV-coinfected adults and supports recommendations that providers pay special attention to drinking in this population. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 266-270, 2013).
HubMed – addiction


First-episode acute and transient psychotic disorder in Latvia: A 6-year follow-up study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Nord J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 5;
Rusaka M, Ranc?ns E

Background: Acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD; F23, ICD-10) is an acute, short-lived psychosis, which has variable prevalence worldwide and has not been extensively studied. Aims: To explore the first episode of ATPD in patients in Latvia by describing the clinical features, analyzing the longitudinal changes of diagnosis and associated socio-demographic characteristics. Material and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all first-time hospitalized patients fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria for ATPD treated at the Riga Centre of Psychiatry and Addiction Disorders, Latvia, during a 3-year period. Patients were followed-up and assessed using standardized instruments. Results: During a 3-year period, 294 patients were first-time hospitalized with a ATPD diagnosis; 54% were women. The average age at first psychotic episode was 35.7 ± 12.3 years for women, and 30.0 ± 10.8 years for men (P < 0.0001). Over an average of 5.6 years follow-up period, 51% of patients were not re-hospitalized. Later diagnosis was changed to schizophrenia in 73% of the re-hospitalized patients, mostly within the first 2 years of illness. The overall stability rate of ATPD diagnosis reached 58%. Typical polymorphic symptomatology, abrupt onset (i.e. within 48 h), less frequent anxiety, but more frequent hallucinations were observed in ATPD patients that later developed schizophrenia (P < 0.05). Stressful life events in the 6 months prior to the first episode were found in 44% of patients. Conclusions: Combining these assessments from first-episode ATPD patients in Latvia, with data from other countries may help to predict the development of disease and provide the possible basis for potential changes to ICD-11. HubMed – addiction


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