What Works in Secondary Schools? a Systematic Review of Classroom-Based Body Image Programs.

What works in secondary schools? A systematic review of classroom-based body image programs.

Body Image. 2013 May 14;
Yager Z, Diedrichs PC, Ricciardelli LA, Halliwell E

Governments, schools, and curriculum authorities are increasingly recognizing that body image during adolescence is a public health issue that warrants attention in the school setting. After 30 years of eating disorder prevention research, and given the current interest in this area, it seems timely to review the research on interventions to improve body image in schools. We reviewed universal-selective, classroom-based programs that have been conducted since the year 2000, among adolescents, and found 16 eligible intervention programs. Seven of these programs were effective in improving body image on at least one measure, from pre to post test, though effect sizes were small (d=0.22-0.48). These effective programs were conducted among younger adolescents 12.33-13.62 years, and included activities focusing on media literacy, self esteem, and the influence of peers. Implications for school personnel and curriculum authorities are discussed, and we provide recommendations for a strategic approach to future research in this area. HubMed – eating


Bilateral Pallidal Stimulation for “Sticking-Out Tongue” Feature in Patients With Primary Focal Tongue Protrusion Dystonia.

Neuromodulation. 2013 May 17;
Chung JC, Kim JP, Chang WS, Kim HY, Chang JW

INTRODUCTION: Tongue protrusion dystonia can cause difficulty with speech, mastication, breathing, and swallowing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a widespread therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory dystonia. To our knowledge, detailed reports regarding DBS for tongue protrusion dystonia are rare. In this report, we describe two patients with “sticking out” tongue protrusion who had undergone bilateral GPi DBS. METHODS: Operations were performed with surface electromyographic (EMG) monitoring, microelectrode recording, and macrostimulation to identify the point at which tongue kinetic cells respond most effectively. The most effective location for active contacts was identified according to burst EMG response in the posteroventral GPi. RESULTS: Two years after DBS, total Burke, Fahn, and Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale scores of two patients were improved from 12.5 to 1 (92.0%) and from 13 to 1 (92.3%), respectively. One 58-year-old woman who lost 7?kg weight from not eating well improved enough to eat solid food and became free from choking. Another 54-year-old woman who had dysarthria and mumbled could speak more fluently and would not have complained difficulty in reading any more. CONCLUSION: Stimulation on posteroventral GPi for patients with idiopathic “sticking-out” tongue movement changes EMG pattern in orofacial muscles. This fact supports a reason for modulation of unknown circuit connecting tongue-specific area in motor cortex, and basal ganglia. HubMed – eating


Women with anorexia nervosa should not be treated with estrogen or birth control pills in a bone sparing effect.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 May 20;
Bergstrom I, Crisby M, Engstrom AM, Hölcke M, Fored M, Kruse PJ, Berg AM

Eating disorders is a prevalent, serious condition that affects, mainly young women. An early and enduring sign of anorexia is amenorrhea. There is no evidence for benefits of hormone therapy in patients with anorexia, however, hormone medication and oral contraceptives are frequently prescribed for young women with anorexia as a prevention against and treatment for low bone mineral density. The use of estrogens may create a false picture indicating that the skeleton is being protected against osteoporosis. Thus the motivation to regain weight, and adhere to treatment of the eating disorder in itself, may be reduced. The most important intervention is to restore the menstrual periods through increased nutrition. Hormone and oral contraceptive therapy should not be prescribed to young women with amenorrhea and concurrent eating disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. HubMed – eating


Psychotherapy-lite: obesity and the role of the mental health practitioner.

Am J Psychother. 2013; 67(1): 3-22
Karasu SR

Obesity is a chronic medical disorder that is the result of a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, neuro-endocrinological, psychosocial, and behavioral factors. There are treatment algorithms, depending on the severity of obesity, and a multi-component approach, including attention to psychological issues, is recommended regardless of the level of obesity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is beneficial in assisting with stimulus control, self-monitoring of lifestyle changes, goal-setting, and restructuring negative and self-defeating thoughts, and psychodynamic (insight-oriented) psychotherapy is useful in assisting with conflicts regarding excessive weight, body image, relationship to food and disordered patterns of eating, and dealing with the prejudice and overt discrimination obese patients may experience. Neither therapy is particularly effective alone and either and/or both may need to be continued indefinitely to avoid inevitable weight regain. Psychological intervention before and during the difficult process of dieting, as well as before and after bariatric surgery, is essential for some vulnerable patients. Since psychological factors are neither primarily etiological nor even necessarily predominant in obesity, the mental health professional plays an important, though adjunctive–“psychotherapy-lite” role–in treating obese patients. HubMed – eating